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Perspectives of an
Ex-CIO

05.24.19

Focus on the people: How higher ed institutions can successfully make an ERP system change

The enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is the heart of an institution’s business, maintaining all aspects of day-to-day operations, from student registration to staff payroll. Many institutions have used the same ERP systems for decades and face challenges to meet the changing demands of staff and students. As new ERP vendors enter the marketplace with new features and functionality, institutions are considering a change. Some things to consider:

  1. Don’t just focus on the technology and make change management an afterthought. Transitioning to a new ERP system takes considerable effort, and has the potential to go horribly wrong if sponsorship, good planning, and communication channels are not in place. The new technology is the easy part of a transition—the primary challenge is often rooted in people’s natural resistance to change.  
  2. Overcoming resistance to change requires a thoughtful and intentional approach that focuses on change at the individual level. Understanding this helps leadership focus their attention and energy to best raise awareness and desire for the change.
  3. One effective tool that provides a good framework for successful change is the Prosci ADKAR® model. This framework has five distinct phases that align with ERP change:

These phases provide an approach for developing activities for change management, preparing leadership to lead and sponsor change and supporting employees through the implementation of the change.

The three essential steps to leveraging this framework:

  1. Perform a baseline assessment to establish an understanding of how ready the organization is for an ERP change
  2. Provide sponsorship, training, and communication to drive employee adoption
  3. Prepare and support activities to implement, celebrate, and sustain participation throughout the ERP transition

Following this approach with a change management framework such as the Prosci ADKAR® model can help an organization prepare, guide, and adopt ERP change more easily and successfully. 

If you’re considering a change, but need to prepare your institution for a healthy ERP transition using change management, chart yourself on this ADKAR framework—what is your organization’s change readiness? Do you have appropriate buy-in? What problems will you face?

You now know that this framework can help your changes stick, and have an idea of where you might face resistance. We’re certified Prosci ADKAR® practitioners and have experience guiding Higher Ed leaders like you through these steps. Get in touch—we’re happy to help and have the experience and training to back it up. Please contact the team with any questions you may have.

1Prosci ADKAR®from http://www.prosci.com

Related Industries

Related Services

Cloud services are becoming more and more omnipresent, and rapidly changing how companies and organizations conduct their day-to-day business.

Many higher education institutions currently utilize cloud services for learning management systems (LMS) and student email systems. Yet there are some common misunderstandings and assumptions about cloud services, especially among higher education administrative leaders who may lack IT knowledge. The following information will provide these leaders with a better understanding of cloud services and how to develop a cloud services strategy.

What are cloud services?

Cloud services are internet-based technology services provided and/or hosted by offsite vendors. Cloud services can include a variety of applications, resources, and services, and are designed to be easily scalable, cost effective, and fully managed by the cloud services vendor.

What are the different types?

Cloud services are generally categorized by what they provide. Today, there are four primary types of cloud services:

Cloud Service Types 

Cloud services can be further categorized by how they are provided:

  1. Private cloud services are dedicated to only one client. Security and control is the biggest value for using a private cloud service.
  2. Public cloud services are shared across multiple clients. Cost effectiveness is the best value of public cloud services because resources are shared among a large number of clients.
  3. Hybrid cloud services are combinations of on-premise software and cloud services. The value of hybrid cloud services is the ability to adopt new cloud services (private or public) slowly while maintaining on-premise services that continue to provide value.

How do cloud services benefit higher education institutions?

Higher education administrative leaders should understand that cloud services provide multiple benefits.
Some examples:

Cloud-Services-for-Higher-Education


What possible problems do cloud services present to higher education institutions?

At the dawn of the cloud era, many of the problems were technical or operational in nature. As cloud services have become more sophisticated, the problems have become more security and business related. Today, higher education institutions have to tackle challenges such as cybersecurity/disaster recovery, data ownership, data governance, data compliance, and integration complexities.

While these problems and questions may be daunting, they can be overcome with strong leadership and best-practice policies, processes, and controls.

How can higher education administrative leaders develop a cloud services strategy?

You should work closely with IT leadership to complete this five-step planning checklist to develop a cloud services strategy: 

1. 

Identify new services to be added or consolidated; build a business case and identify the return on investment (ROI) for moving to the cloud, in order to answer:

• 

What cloud services does your institution already have?

• 

What cloud services does your institution already have?

• 

What services should you consider replacing with cloud services, and why?

• 

How are data decisions being made?

2. 

Identify design, technical, network, and security requirements (e.g., private or public; are there cloud services already in place that can be expanded upon, such as a private cloud service), in order to answer:

• 

Is your IT staff ready to migrate, manage, and support cloud services?

• 

Do your business processes align with using cloud services?

• 

Do cloud service-provided policies align with your institution’s security policies?

• 

Do you have the in-house expertise to integrate cloud services with existing on-premise services?

3. 

Decide where data will be stored; data governance (e.g., on-premise, off-premise data center, cloud), in order to answer:

• 

Who owns the data in the institution’s cloud, and where?

• 

Who is accountable for data decisions?

4. 

Integrate with current infrastructure; ensure cloud strategy easily allows scalability for expansion and additional services, in order to answer:

• 

What integration points will you have between on-premise and cloud applications or services, and can the institution easily implement, manage, and support them?

5. 

Identify business requirements — budget, timing, practices, policies, and controls required for cloud services and compliance, in order to answer:

• 

Will your business model need to change in order to support a different cost model for cloud services (i.e., less capital for equipment purchases every three to five years versus a steady monthly/yearly operating cost model for cloud services)?

• 

Does your institution understand the current state and federal compliance and privacy regulations as they relate to data?

• 

Do you have a contingency plan if its primary cloud services provider goes out of business?

• 

Do your contracts align with institutional, state, and federal guidelines?

Need assistance?

BerryDunn’s higher education team focuses on advising colleges and universities in improving services, reducing costs, and adding value. Our team is well qualified to assist in understanding the cloud “skyscape.” If your institution seeks to maximize the value of cloud services or develop a cloud services strategy, please contact me.

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Cloud services 101: An almanac for higher education leaders

Law enforcement, courts, prosecutors, and corrections personnel provide many complex, seemingly limitless services. Seemingly is the key word here, for in reality these personnel provide a set number of incredibly important services.

Therefore, it should surprise no one that justice and public safety (J&PS) IT departments should also provide a well-defined set of services. However, these departments are often viewed as parking lots for all technical problems. The disconnect between IT and other J&PS business units often stems from differences in organizational culture and structure, and differing department objectives and goals. As a result, J&PS organizations often experience misperception between business units and IT. The solution to this disconnect and misperception? Defining IT department services.

The benefits of defined IT services

  1. Increased business customer satisfaction. Once IT services align with customer needs, and expectations are established (e.g., service costs and service level agreements), customers can expect to receive the services they agreed to, and the IT department can align staff and skill levels to successfully meet those needs.
  2. Improved IT personnel morale. With clear definition of the services they provide to their customers, including clearly defined processes for customers to request those services, IT personnel will no longer be subject to “rogue” questions or requests, and customers won’t be inclined to circumvent the process. This decreases IT staff stress and enables them to focus on their roles in providing the defined services. 
  3. Better alignment of IT services to organizational needs. Through collaboration between the business and IT organizations, the business is able to clearly articulate the IT services that are, and aren’t, required. IT can help define realistic service levels and associated services costs, and can align IT staff and skills to the agreed-upon services. This results in increased IT effectiveness and reduced confusion regarding what services the business can expect from IT.
  4. More collaboration between IT and the organization. The collaboration between the IT and business units in defining services results in an enhanced relationship between these organizations, increasing trust and clarifying expectations. This collaborative model continues as the services required by the business evolve, and IT evolves to support them.
  5. Reduced costs. J&PS organizations that fail to strategically align IT and business strategy face increasing financial costs, as the organization is unable to invest IT dollars wisely. When a business doesn’t see IT as an enabler of business strategy, IT is no longer the provider of choice—and ultimately risks IT services being outsourced to a third-party vendor.

Next steps
Once a J&PS IT department defines its services to support business needs, it then can align the IT staffing model (i.e., numbers of staff, skill sets, roles and responsibilities), and continue to collaborate with the business to identify evolving services, as well as remove services that are no longer relevant. Contact us for help with this next step and other IT strategies and tactics for justice and public safety organizations.

Blog
The definition of success: J&PS IT departments must define services

“The world is one big data problem,” says MIT scientist and visionary Andrew McAfee.

That’s a daunting (though hardly surprising) quote for many in data-rich sectors, including higher education. Yet blaming data is like blaming air for a malfunctioning wind turbine. Data is a valuable asset that can make your institution move.

To many of us, however, data remains a four-letter word. The real culprit behind the perceived data problem is our handling and perception of data and the role it can play in our success—that is, the relegating of data to a select, responsible few, who are usually separated into hardened silos. For example, a common assumption in higher education is that the IT team can handle it. Not so. Data needs to be viewed as an institutional asset, consumed by many and used by the institution for the strategic purposes of student success, scholarship, and more.

The first step in addressing your “big” data problem? Data governance.

What is data governance?

There are various definitions, but the one we use with our clients is “the ongoing and evolutionary process driven by leaders to establish principles, policies, business rules, and metrics for data sharing.”

Please note that the phrase “IT” does not appear anywhere in this definition.

Why is data governance necessary? For many reasons, including:

  1. Data governance enables analytics. Without data governance, it’s difficult to gain value from analytics initiatives which will produce inconsistent results. A critical first step in any data analytics initiative is to make sure that definitions are widely accepted and standards have been established. This step allows decision makers to have confidence in the data being analyzed to describe, predict, and improve operations.
     
  2. Data governance strengthens privacy, security, and compliance. Compliance requirements for both public and private institutions constantly evolve. The more data-reliant your world becomes, the more protected your data needs to be. If an organization does not implement security practices as part of its data governance framework, it becomes easier to fall out of compliance. 
     
  3. Data governance supports agility. How many times have reports for basic information (part-time faculty or student FTEs per semester, for example) been requested, reviewed, and returned for further clarification or correction? And that’s just within your department! Now add multiple requests from the perspective of different departments, and you’re surely going through multiple iterations to create that report. That takes time and effort. By strengthening your data governance framework, you can streamline reporting processes by increasing the level of trust you have in the information you are seeking. Understanding the value of data governance is the easy part/ The real trick is implementing a sustainable data governance framework that recognizes that data is an institutional asset and not just a four-letter word.

Stay tuned for part two of this blog series: The how of data governance in higher education. In the meantime, reach out to me if you would like to discuss additional data governance benefits for your institution.

Blog
Data is a four-letter word. Governance is not.

As a new year is upon us, many people think about “out with the old and in with the new”. For those of us who think about technology, and in particular, blockchain technology, the new year brings with it the realization that blockchain is here to stay (at least in some form). Therefore, higher education leaders need to familiarize themselves with some of the technology’s possible uses, even if they don’t need to grasp the day-to-day operational requirements. Here’s a high-level perspective of blockchain to help you answer some basic questions.

Are blockchain and bitcoin interchangeable terms?

No they aren’t. Bitcoin is an electronic currency that uses blockchain technology, (first developed circa 2008 to record bitcoin transactions). Since 2008, many companies and organizations utilize blockchain technology for a multitude of purposes.

What is a blockchain?

In its simplest terms, a blockchain is a decentralized, digital list (“chain”) of timestamped records (“blocks”) that are connected, secured by cryptography, and updated by participant consensus.

What is cryptography?

Cryptography refers to converting unencrypted information into encrypted information—and vice versa—to both protect data and authenticate users.

What are the pros of using blockchain?

Because blockchain technology is inherently decentralized, you can reduce the need for “middleman” entities (e.g., financial institutions or student clearinghouses). This, in turn, can lower transactional costs and other expenses, and cybersecurity risks—as hackers often like to target large, info-rich, centralized databases.

Decentralization removes central points of failure. In addition, blockchain transactions are generally more secure than other types of transactions, irreversible, and verifiable by the participants. These transaction qualities help prevent fraud, malware attacks, and other risks and issues prevalent today.

What are the cons of using blockchain technology?

Each blockchain transaction requires signature verification and processing, which can be resource-intensive. Furthermore, blockchain technology currently faces strong opposition from certain financial institutions for a variety of reasons. Finally, although blockchains offer a secure platform, they are not impervious to cyberattacks. Blockchain does not guarantee a hacker-proof environment.

How can blockchain benefit higher education institutions?

Blockchain technology can provide higher education institutions with a more secure way of making and recording financial transactions. You can use blockchains to verify and transfer academic credits and certifications, protect student personal identifiable information (PII) while simultaneously allowing students to access and transport their PII, decentralize academic content, and customize learning experiences. At its core, blockchain provides a fresh alternative to traditional methods of identity verification, an ongoing challenge for higher education administration.

As blockchain becomes less of a buzzword and begins to expand beyond the realm of digital currency, colleges and universities need to consider it for common challenges such as identity management, application processing, and student credentialing. If you’d like to discuss the potential benefits blockchain technology provides, please contact me.

Blog
Higher education and blockchain 101: It's not just for bitcoin anymore

The late science fiction writer (and college professor) Isaac Asimov once said: “I do not fear computers. I fear the lack of them.” Had Asimov worked in higher ed IT management, he might have added: “but above all else, I fear the lack of computer staff.”

Indeed, it can be a challenge for higher education institutions to recruit and retain IT professionals. Private companies often pay more in a good economy, and in certain areas of the nation, open IT positions at colleges and universities outnumber available, qualified IT workers. According to one study from 2016, almost half of higher education IT workers are at risk of leaving the institutions they serve, largely for better opportunities and more supportive workplaces. Understandably, IT leadership fears an uncertain future of vacant roles—yet there are simple tactics that can help you improve the chances of filling open positions.

Emphasize the whole package

You need to leverage your institution’s strengths when recruiting IT talent. A focus on innovation, project leadership, and responsibility for supporting the mission of the institution are important attributes to promote when recruiting. Your institution should sell quality of life, which can be much more attractive than corporate culture. Many candidates are attracted to the energy and activity of college campuses, in addition to the numerous social and recreational outlets colleges provide.

Benefit packages are another strong asset for recruiting top talent. Schools need to ensure potential candidates know the amount of paid leave, retirement, and educational assistance for employees and employee family members. These added perks will pique the interest of many candidates who might otherwise have only looked at salary during the process.

Use the right job title

Some current school vacancies have very specific job titles, such as “Portal Administrator” or “Learning Multimedia Developer.” However, this specificity can limit visibility on popular job posting sites, reducing the number of qualified applicants. Job titles, such as “Web Developer” and “Java Developer,” can yield better search results. Furthermore, some current vacancies include a number or level after the job title (e.g., “System Administrator 2”), which also limits visibility on these sites. By removing these indicators, you can significantly increase the applicant pool.

Focus on service, not just technology

Each year, institutions deploy an increasing number of Software as a Service (SaaS) and hosted applications. As higher education institutions invest more in these applications, they need fewer personnel for day-to-day technology maintenance support. In turn, this allows IT organizations to focus limited resources on services that identify and analyze technology solutions, provide guidance to optimize technology investments, and manage vendor relationships. IT staff with soft skills will become even more valuable to your institution as they engage in more people- and process-centric efforts.

Fill in the future

It may seem like science fiction, but by revising your recruiting and retention tactics, your higher education institution can improve its chances of filling IT positions in a competitive job market. In a future blog, I’ll provide ideas for cultivating staff from your institution via student workers and upcoming graduates. If you’d like to discuss additional staffing tactics, send me an email.

Blog
No science fiction: Tactics for recruiting and retaining higher education IT positions

While new software applications help you speed up processes and operations, deciding which ones will work best for your organization can quickly evolve into analysis paralysis, as there are so many considerations.

Case in point: Software as a Service (SaaS) model
The benefits of the SaaS model, in which a vendor remotely hosts an organization’s applications, are fairly well known: your organization doesn’t have to shell out for costly hardware, the vendor tackles upgrades, backups, data recovery, and security, and you have more time and money to focus on your business goals.

There are multiple factors to look at when determining whether a SaaS solution is right for you. We’ve compiled a list of the top three SaaS considerations:

1. Infrastructure and capacity
Your organization should consider your own people, processes, and tools when determining whether SaaS makes sense. While an on-site solution may require purchasing new technologies, hiring new staff, and realigning current roles and responsibilities to maintain the system, maintaining a SaaS solution may also require infrastructure updates, such as increased bandwidth to sufficiently connect to the vendor's hosting site.

Needless to say, it’s one thing to maintain a solution; it’s an entirely different thing to keep it secure. An on-site hosting solution requires constant security upgrades, internal audits, and a backup system—all of which takes time and money. A SaaS model requires trust in your vendor to provide security. Make sure your potential vendor uses the latest security measures and standards to keep your critical business data safe and secure.

2. Expense
When you purchase major assets—for example, hardware to host its applications—it incurs capital expenses. Conversely, when you spend money on day-to-day operations (SaaS subscriptions), it incurs operating expenses.

You should weigh the pros and cons of each type of expense when considering a SaaS model. On-site upfront capital expenses for hosting hardware are generally high, and expenses can spike overtime when you update the technology, which can be difficult to predict. And don’t forget about ongoing costs for maintenance, software upgrades, and security patches.

In the SaaS model, you spread out operating costs over time and can predict costs because you are paying via subscription—which generally includes costs for maintenance, software upgrades, and security patches. However, remember you can depreciate capital expenses over time, whereas the deductibility of operating expenses are generally for the year you use them.

3. Vendor viability
Finally, you need to conduct due diligence and vet SaaS vendors before closing the deal. Because SaaS vendors assume the responsibility for vital processes, such as data recovery and security, you need to make sure the potential vendor is financially stable and has a sustainable business model. To help ensure you receive the best possible service, select a vendor considered a leader in its market sector. Prepare a viable exit strategy beforehand so you can migrate your business processes and data easily in case you have any issues with the SaaS provider.

You must read—and understand—the fine print. This is especially important when it comes to the vendor’s policies toward data ownership and future migrations to other service providers, should that become necessary. In other words: Make sure you have final say and control over your data.

Every organization has different aspects of their situation to consider when making a SaaS determination. Want to learn more? It’s a snap! Contact the authors: Clark Lathrum and Matthew Tremblay

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SaaS: Is it right for you? Making SaaS determinations a snap.

As a leader in a higher education institution, you'll be familiar with this paradox: Every solution can lead to more problems, and every answer can lead to more questions. It’s like navigating an endless maze. When it comes to mobile apps, the same holds true. So, the question: Should your institution have a mobile app? The Answer? Absolutely.

Devices, not computers, are how millenials communicate, gather, inform, and engage. Millennials, on average, spend 90 hours per month on mobile apps, not including web searches and website visits.

Students are no exception. A 2016 Nielsen study showed that 98% of millennials aged 18 – 24, and 97% of millennials aged 25 – 34, owned a smartphone, while a 2017 comScore report stated that one out of five millennials no longer use desktop devices, including laptops. Mobile apps have quickly filled the desktop void, and as students grow more reliant on mobile technology, colleges and universities are in the mix, creating apps to bolster student engagement.

So should you create an app? Here are some questions you should answer before creating a mobile app. Welcome to the labyrinth! But don’t be frustrated—answer these questions to help you avoid dead ends and overspending.

1. Is a mobile app part of your IT Strategy? Including a mobile app in your IT strategy minimizes confusion at all levels about the objectives of mobile app implementation. It also helps dictate whether an institution needs multiple mobile apps for various functions, or a primary app that connects users with other functionality. If an institution has multiple campuses, should you align all campuses with a single app, or if will each campus develop their own?

2. What will the app do? Mobile apps can perform a multitude of functions, but for the initial implementation, select a few key functions in one main area, such as academics or student life. Institutions can then add functionality in the future as mobile adoption grows, and demand for more functions increases.

3. Who will use the app? Mobile apps certainly improve engagement throughout the student life cycle—from prospect to student to alumni—but they also present opportunities for increased faculty, staff, and community engagement. And while institutions should identify the immediate audience of the app, they should also identify future users, based upon functionality.

4. Who will manage the app? Institutions should determine who is going to manage the mobile app, and how. The discussion should focus on access, content, and functionality. Is the institution going to manage everything in house, from development to release to support, or will a mobile app vendor provide this support under contract? Depending on your institution, these discussions will vary.

5. What data will the app use? Like any new software system, an app is only as good as its supporting data. It’s important to assess the systems to integrate with the mobile app, and determine if the systems’ data is up-to-date and ready for integration. Consider the use of application program interfaces, or APIs. APIs allow apps and platforms to interact with one another. They can enable social media, news, weather, and entertainment apps to connect with your institution’s app, enhancing the user experience with more content for users.

6. How much data security does your app need? Depending on the functionality of the app you create, you will need varying degrees of security, including user authentication safeguards and other protections to keep information safe.

7. How much can you spend for the app? Your institution should decide how much you will spend on initial app development, with an eye toward including maintenance and development costs for future functionality. Complexity increases costs, so you will need to  budget accordingly. Include budget planning for updates and functionality improvements after launch.

You will also need to establish a timeline for the project and roll out. And note that apps deployed toward the end of the academic year experience less adoption than apps deployed at the beginning of the academic year.

Once your institution answers these questions, you will be off to a good start. And as I stated earlier, every answer to a question can lead to more questions. If your institution needs help navigating the mobile app labyrinth, please reach out to me

Blog
The mobile app labyrinth: Seven questions higher education institutions should ask

We all know them. In fact, you might be one of them — people who worry the words “go live” will lead to job loss (theirs). This feeling is not entirely irrational. When an organization is ready to go live from an existing legacy system to a new enterprise system, stress levels rise and doubts emerge: What can go wrong? How much time will be lost? Are we really ready for this?

We’re here to help. Here is a list of go-live essentials to help you mitigate stress and assess your readiness. While not all-encompassing, it’s a good place to start. Here’s what you need:

  1. A detailed project plan which specifies all of the implementation tasks
    A project plan is one of the most important parts of an implementation. A detailed plan that identifies all of the implementation tasks along with an assigned resource for each task is critical to success. The implementation vendor and the organization should develop this plan together to get buy-in from both teams.
  1. A completed system configuration
    New system configuration is one of the most time-consuming aspects of a technology implementation. If you don’t complete the implementation in a timely manner, it will impact your go-live date. Configure the new system based upon the best practices of the system — not how the existing system was — for timely implementation.
  1. External system interface identification
    While replacement of some external systems may be a goal of an implementation, there may be situations where external systems are not replaced or the organization has to send and/or receive data from external organizations. And while new systems have advanced interface technology capabilities, the external systems may not share these capabilities. Therefore it is imperative that you identify external system interfaces to avoid gaps in functionality.
  1. Testing, testing, testing
    End-to-end testing or User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is often overlooked. It involves completing testing scenarios for each module to ensure appropriate system configuration. While the timing of UAT may vary, allow adequate time to identify solutions to issues that may result from UAT.
  1. Data conversion validation
    When you begin using a new system, it’s best to ensure you’re working with clean, up-to-date data. Identify data conversion tasks in the project plan and include multiple data conversion passes. You must also determine if the existing data is actually worth converting. When you complete the data conversion, check for accuracy.
  1. End user training
    You must train all end users to ensure proper utilization across the organization. Don’t underestimate the amount of time needed for end user training. It is also important to provide a feedback mechanism for end users to determine if the training was successful.
  1. A go-live cutover plan
    The overall project plan may indicate go-live as an activity. List specific activities to complete as part of go-live. You can build these tasks into the project plan or maintain them as a separate checklist to promote a smooth transition.
  1. Support structure
    Establish an internal support structure when preparing for go-live to help address issues that may arise. Most organizations take time to configure and test the system and provide training to end users prior to go-live. Questions will arise as part of this process — establish a process to track and address these questions.

Technology implementations can significantly impact your organization, and it’s common for stress levels to rise during the go-live process. But with the right assessment and preparation, you can lessen their impact and reduce staff stress. Our experienced, objective advisors work with public and private sector organizations across the country to oversee large enterprise projects from inception to successful completion. Please reach out to us to learn more about preparing for your next big project.

Blog
Don't worry, just assess: Eight tips for reducing go-live stress

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