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PPP loan forgiveness will likely impact your overhead rate!

08.18.20

Read this if you are an engineering or architecture firm working with government agencies reimbursing overhead established in an overhead rate schedule based on direct labor.

It seems everyone is both anxious to gain forgiveness of their PPP loans and worried about the ramifications of requesting and being granted forgiveness. There is so much you need to consider to understand the potential impact forgiveness may have on your future cash flow and revenues. Let’s focus, though, on your overhead rate.

Some things to consider:

  • PPP loan forgiveness may significantly reduce your overhead rate. As a result, future contracts and related revenues from federal, state, or local government agencies will be impacted. 

    Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 31.201-5 dictates that the applicable portion of any income, rebate, allowance, or other credit relating to any allowable cost and received by the contractor shall be credited to the government. If the credit will be used to reduce the indirect labor costs and rent, some of the largest costs of A/E firms, the overhead rate might be reduced by as much as 25% to 30%. 
  • Guidance on the timing of credit offset is still unclear.

    Do you offset 2020 expenses for forgiveness not settled until 2021 to better match cash flows and credit expenses relevant to forgiveness? Or reflect the forgiveness in the Schedule during the period forgiveness was formally received?
  • The IRS is currently communicating that the costs incurred to gain PPP loan forgiveness will not be deductible expenses, thus increasing 2020 taxable income.

    If your company is in a taxable position, federal income taxes will increase as a result and impact cash flows. And remember, federal income taxes are unallowable costs in overhead rate schedules under FAR Part 31.201-41.

Depending on the concentration of your contracts with federal agencies, the significance of overhead rate reimbursement on contract revenues and expectations for growth, it may actually be more beneficial to pay the loan back instead of asking for forgiveness.

The Department of Defense (DOD) weighs in:

Often the first agency to establish policy or make changes, the DOD has issued guidance in the form of answers to FAQs about CARES Act impacts on DOD pricing and contracting. Q23 specifically addresses the issue of PPP loan forgiveness. It states, “to the extent that PPP credits are allocable to costs allowable under contract, the Government should receive a credit or a reduction in billing for any PPP loans or loan payments that are forgiven.” You can read that and other CARES Act credit guidance here. Even if you don’t directly work with DoD, other federal agencies and state DOT’s generally adopt DoD’s guidance. 

What if we apply forgiveness credit against direct labor? 

You might wonder, why not just apply the credit against direct and indirect labor in proportion to the actual payroll paid during the PPP loan covered period? If this was possible, the overhead rate might actually increase. Unfortunately, billing the government for direct labor costs offset on the overhead rate schedule with the credit of PPP loan forgiveness would violate FAR Part 31 cost principles. Since you can’t bill for credited costs, revenues for contracts with government agencies would be further reduced. 

We advise a wait and see approach.

The best action plan to do right now is to wait for better and clearer guidance. Industry associations such as ACEC are advocating for more favorable PPP loan forgiveness treatment. Furthermore, there are still quite a few unanswered questions by the SBA. 

If you have any questions related to your overhead rate and the impact of PPP loan forgiveness on your revenue from contracts with government agencies, please contact us. We’re here to help. 


 

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  • Linda Roberts
    Principal
    Construction, Manufacturing, Real Estate
    P 207.541.2281

We have talked about the two recent GAAP updates for years now: 1) changes to the lease accounting and 2) changes to revenue recognition standards. We have speculated what the outcomes are going to be and how they will affect the financial statements, requirements for certain ratio calculations and the like, and finally we have some answers! Both standards were finalized and published, and will be in effect in 2019 and 2020. The new rules for both require more than a couple of hours of reading and can be very confusing.

Two questions we have heard recently: Are the changes intertwined? And do we now need to consider the new revenue recognition standard when we implement the new lease accounting? The answer is a resounding NO!

The new GAAP for revenue recognition is very clear about this: it specifically carves out lease contracts. As a matter of fact, accounting applied by lessors will not change significantly when the new lease rules come into effect. If you are a lessor, you will continue to classify the majority of operating leases as operating leases, and will recognize lease income for those leases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. However, if you find the new rules confusing, your BerryDunn team is standing by to help you get the answers you need.

Article
New lease and revenue recognition rules: Mutually exclusive

The good news? When it comes to revenue recognition, tax law isn’t changing. The bad news? Thanks to new revenue recognition rules, book to tax differences are changing. And because tax prep generally starts with book income, this means that the construction industry, among others, will need to start changing their thinking about tax liability, too.

The goal of the new rules is to establish standards for reporting useful information in financial statements about the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue from long-term contracts with customers. The standards aim to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue. You can apply standards consistently across various transactions, industries, and capital markets — in order to improve financial reporting by creating common guidance for U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The core principle is that you should recognize revenue in an amount and at a time that aligns with expectations for the actual amount to be earned when it is actually earned (i.e., when the goods or services are delivered). That’s different from what we do today. Here are some areas affected by the changes:

Uninstalled materials

Under current GAAP, the costs of uninstalled materials, if constructed specifically for the job, are included in the job cost. Under the new GAAP, contractors will recognize the revenue only to the extent of the cost or will capitalize them as inventory—you will recognize profits later. For tax purposes, uninstalled materials are still included in the job cost. You will have to recognize profits for tax purposes sooner than for book purposes.

Multiple performance obligations

Under the new GAAP, you may have to segregate one contract into two or more performance obligations — those revenues are recognized separately. For tax purposes, it is very difficult to segregate a contract (it requires a tax commissioner’s prior written consent) so a contractor might have to show one contract for tax purposes and two or three contracts for book purposes. For example, if you have a contract for a design build project and generally bid separately for the design phase and construction phase of this type of project, you might have to separate this contract into two performance obligations. For tax purposes, you will continue to treat this project as a single contract. These contracts most likely will have different profit margins and you will have to recognize revenue at a different pace.

 Variable consideration

Under current GAAP, contractors can’t recognize revenue on bonus payments until they are realized, usually at the end of the project. Under the new GAAP, contractors need to gauge the probability of the bonus payments’ being received and may have to include some or all of the bonus payments in the contract price — you will have to recognize revenue sooner. For tax purposes, variable considerations are included in the contract price when contractors can reasonably expect to collect them. The general practice is that tax follows what you record for books for the total contract price. Does this mean that you have to recognize revenue for tax purposes sooner, too? Or will it create a book to tax difference, subject to judgement? The IRS may be issuing some guidance on these issues.

Deferred taxes

With changes in book to tax differences due to changes in timing of when you recognize profits, there will also be a change in deferred taxes.

After implementing the new GAAP, you will need to segregate items like variable consideration and uninstalled materials. Even if your tax method doesn’t change, will you need to maintain and provide the information needed for tax return purposes? More companies might ask the IRS for permission to make accounting method changes for federal income tax purposes. The IRS may consider allowing an automatic method change in order to help companies conform more easily to the new standards. The IRS will also provide guidance on how the new revenue recognition rules affect tax reporting.  

Accounting for GAAP purposes isn’t the same thing as accounting for tax purposes. But when it comes to the new revenue recognition rules, things can get complicated. To learn more about accounting method changes you might need to make, get in touch with your BerryDunn team today and see how the rules may affect your company.

Article
The new revenue recognition rules: Contractors, are you ready for tax Implications?

Read this if you are a financial manager of an ESOP.

Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) must generally buy back, or repurchase, participants’ shares when they leave the plan or want to diversify holdings. If the ESOP does not purchase the stock the company is required to purchase the shares from the participant under the “put option” described in Internal Revenue Code (IRS) Section 409(h).These rules require the company to either provide enough cash to the ESOP to fund stock repurchases, if adequate other assets are not available within the ESOP, or to fund the repurchase of shares outside of the ESOP. Anticipating the amount and timing of these repurchases requires a lot of number crunching and assumptions to arrive at an estimated “Repurchase Obligation” at a point in time. In most cases, ESOPs enlist the help of valuation specialists, actuaries, or outsider vendors to prepare a study.

All this is done as a component of ESOP cash flow planning but also begs the question, what do you need to record or disclose in your company’s financial statements related to this obligation?

The Financial Accounting Standards Board’s guidance on the subject is contained in Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation. More specifically, ASC Section 718-40-50 clearly outlines the terms, allocated share and fair value information, compensation and other related disclosure requirements for ESOPs in paragraphs 1a through g. One of these requirements—paragraph f—requires disclosure of “the existence and nature of any repurchase obligation...” While the existence of a potential repurchase obligation is undeniable due to the requirements of IRC Section 409(h), disclosure of the nature of the obligation may require judgement and a careful reread of the plan documents.

Existence of the obligation

What private companies record for redemptions is straightforward. They are required to accrue obligations related to redemption events initiated on or before the balance sheet date and disclose share and obligation balance information related to those transactions of material.

Disclosures must include the number of allocated shares and the fair value of those shares as of the balance sheet date. This sounds like a general disclosure of terms, but the intention is to communicate maximum repurchase obligation exposure. If redemptions subsequent to the balance sheet date require material and imminent use of cash, the company should consider whether it is required to disclose them as a subsequent event (including amounts) under ASC Topic 855, Subsequent Events.

Nature of the obligation

So, what do you need to disclose specific to the nature of your company’s ESOP shares repurchase obligation?

Put options against the ESOP trust (i.e., rights afforded under the ESOP requiring the trust to purchase outstanding stock at given prices within specific time horizons). Plan terms allowing redemption payments in excess of a certain threshold to be made over a defined period of time (e.g., retiring employees with vested balances greater than $5,000 may receive their payments in equal installments over a five-year period, while those with lower balances may receive their benefit in a lump sum).

If your company’s ownership has an ESOP component or you are considering an ESOP as part of your exit strategy, please reach out to Linda Roberts and Estera Ciparyte-McDonald. They can help you better understand the myriad considerations to be taken into account, and the required and potential financial statement impact and disclosures.

Article
ESOP repurchase obligations―Planning for future pay ups

If you received PPP funds, read on.

The Treasury has released new information regarding Paycheck Program Protection forgiveness. 

Based on IRS guidance, if you intend to apply for forgiveness and have a reasonable expectation it will be granted, the expenses used to support forgiveness will not be permitted as a deduction in 2020. It is unclear whether this guidance would apply if a taxpayer is undecided with regard to their forgiveness application at year end. Here is what we know so far.

The CARES Act included provisions that stated PPP loan forgiveness would not be considered taxable income under the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”). The CARES Act specifically provides the forgiveness is not taxable income under IRC Section 61.

However, the IRS has issued the following guidance on this matter, which relates to the expenses paid with the PPP loan funds.

Notice 2020-32, states IRC Section 265(a)(1) applies to disallow expenses that were included on and supported a taxpayer’s successful PPP loan forgiveness application. 

In general, this section states NO deductions are permitted for expenses that are directly attributable to tax exempt income. 

The IRS seems to have concluded, in this Notice, the PPP loan forgiveness is tax exempt income. Therefore, the salary and occupancy costs used to support forgiveness, under current IRS guidance, will not be tax deductible.

Unanswered questions

This notice, while somewhat informative, raises many unanswered questions. For example, what are the tax consequences if a PPP loan is forgiven in 2021 and the expenses supporting the forgiveness were incurred in 2020? Could the forgiveness be construed as something other than tax exempt income?

Revenue Ruling 2020-27 attempts to answer some of these questions and provides additional guidance with regard to IRS expectations. The Ruling seems to indicate there are two possible tax positions relative to expenses that qualify PPP loans for forgiveness:

  • First, the loan forgiveness could be construed as tax exempt income and, pursuant to IRC Section 265 expenses directly attributable to the exempt income are not deductible.
  • Second, loan forgiveness could be construed as the reimbursement of certain expenses, and not as tax exempt income. Under the reimbursement approach the IRS has stated if you intend to apply for forgiveness and reasonably expect to receive forgiveness the reimbursed expenses are not deductible, even if forgiveness is obtained in the following tax year. This position seems to be supported by several tax controversies which were litigated in favor of the IRS. 

Some taxpayers had anticipated using a rule known as the tax benefit rule to deduct expense in 2020 and report a recovery (income) in 2021 when the loan is forgiven. It appears the IRS is not willing to accept this filing position.

We are hoping Congress will revisit this issue and consider statutory changes which allow for the deduction of expenses. Some taxpayers are planning to extend their income tax returns, taking a wait and see approach, with the hopes Congress will amend the statutes and allow for a deduction.

Under current law, it appears the salary, interest, rent used to support a forgiveness application will not be permitted as a tax deduction on your 2020 tax returns. This could result in a significant change in your 2020 taxable income.

Final considerations

For estimated tax payment purposes, we believe it would be reasonable to attribute the lost deductions to the quarter in which you made your final determination to file for forgiveness. This could mitigate any underpayment of estimated income tax penalties. 

If you are making safe harbor quarter estimates and/or have sufficient withholdings any incremental tax would be due with your return on April 15, 2021. Generally, the IRS safe harbor is to pay 110% of prior year tax during the current year to be penalty proof.

If you have questions about your specific situation, please contact us. We’re here to help.

COVID-19 business support

We will continue to post updates as we uncover them. Let us know if you have questions. For more information regarding the Paycheck Protection Program, the CARES Act, or other COVID-19 resources, see our COVID-19 Resource Center.

Article
Update: Treasury issues a revenue ruling and revenue procedure regarding PPP forgiveness

Read this if you are a business owner.

Here is some end-of-year tax information we would like to share. While it may vary in your specific situation, we are providing this general information for your review. Please contact us with any questions about your year-end preparations. 

As the world continues to contend with the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic fallout, businesses are doing all they can to mitigate risks and plan for a recovery that’s anything but certain. Here are some tax relief tactics that can help take your business from reacting to the day-to-day challenges to taking advantage of those incentives that are available to help move your business forward.

Tax strategies to generate immediate cash flow

While not exhaustive, here are several tax strategies to consider:

Debt and losses optimization

  • File net operating loss (NOL) carryback refund claims
  • File claim to relieve 2019 tax payments due with the 2019 returns for corporations expecting a 2020 loss 
  • Analyze the tax impact of income resulting from the cancellation of debt in the course of a debt restructuring
  • Consider claiming losses related to worthless, damaged, or abandoned property to generate losses 
  • Decrease estimated tax payments based on lower 2020 income projections, if overpayments are anticipated
  • Consider filing accounting method changes to accelerate deductions and defer income recognition with the goal of increasing a loss in 2020 for expanded loss carryback rules

Making the most of legislation and understand how the CARES Act can provide relief to employers: Defer payment of the employer’s share of Social Security taxes until the earlier of (1) Dec. 31, 2020, or (2) the date the employer’s Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loan is forgiven

Take advantage of any remaining corporate AMT credit

Consider the Employee Retention Credit

Regardless of which tax strategies you leverage, keeping the focus on generating and retaining cash will help ensure your business can weather an extended period of disruption.

Optimizing operations: Uncover tax relief opportunities

The initial tumult of the pandemic and economic fallout has passed, but significant challenges remain. Although companies that have managed to survive up to this point may have overcome immediate safety and cash flow problems, we still face an uncertain future. No one can predict how long the downturn will last, whether the world will revert into crisis mode or the path towards long-term recovery has begun. 

Despite the uncertainty, savvy companies can position themselves to outperform their competitors by capitalizing on market shifts and strengthening their core business models. To do so, liquidity will continue to be at a premium, but many companies at this stage should be able to spend a bit in order to reap considerable returns. Tax planning is important to do just that. Consider which tax strategies can help you find a competitive edge, including: 

Uncovering missed opportunities for savings: 

  • R&D tax credit studies: The money companies spend on technology and innovation can offset payroll and income taxes via R&D tax credits.
  • Property tax assessment appeals: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, some jurisdictions are reevaluating their property tax processes.
  • Cost segregation studies: Cost segregation studies can help owners of commercial or residential buildings increase cash flow by accelerating federal tax depreciation of certain assets.
  • State and local credits and incentives projects: By taking advantage of existing programs, as well as those implemented as a result of COVID-19, companies can qualify for state tax credits and business incentives. 
  • Opportunity zone program: This federal program is structured to encourage investors to shift capital from existing assets to distressed, low-income areas, and in doing so, deferring and even reducing taxes.

Maintaining compliance: If your business secured any federal funding in the early stages of the pandemic, those funds likely came with certain tax and financial reporting compliance measures attached. 

Continue to grow liquidity: Cash is still key to navigating an uncertain road ahead. Continue to leverage liquidity-generating tactics, such as:

  • Evaluating existing accounting methods and changing to optimal methods for accelerating deductions and deferring income recognition, thereby reducing taxable income and increasing cash flow.
  • Reviewing transfer pricing strategies to identify opportunities to optimize cash flow.
  • Pursuing a tax deduction through charitable donations.
  • Maximizing state NOLs through elections, structural changes, intercompany transactions, and triggering unrealized gains.

Moving forward: Adopt new business strategies to reimagine the future

In the recovery phase, demand for goods and services has returned to pre-pandemic-recession levels. The wisest companies won’t spend this time resting on their laurels but will instead use it to reimagine their futures. 

Plans made prior to spring 2020 may no longer make sense in a post-COVID world. Companies need to not only recover from COVID-19, but also integrate the lasting forces of change brought on by the pandemic to emerge more resilient and more agile than before it began. It’s time to reset vision and strategy—and tax needs to be an integral part of that process. Here are some tax considerations that can align with new business strategies: 

Workforce

During recovery, businesses have likely confirmed near-term strategies around where employees will work. While these plans need to balance employee safety and operational efficiency, they also come with important tax impacts. Tax considerations: 

  • Assess the tax implications of your mid- to long-term workforce strategy, whether you take an on-site, fully remote, or a hybrid approach
  • Ensure tax compliance with state or local tax withholding for employees working remotely 
  • Consider the tax implications of outsourcing any business functions

Finances

As demand for products and services increases, it’s likely profits will also grow, meaning many companies that may have been incurring losses may find themselves with taxable income again. At this point, tax strategies should focus on lowering the organization’s total tax liability. Tax considerations: 

  • Optimize the use of any available credits, incentives, deductions, exemptions, or other tax breaks 
  • Maximize the benefit of changes to the net operating loss rules included in the CARES Act 
  • Consider the foreign-derived intangible income (FDII) deduction, if applicable (i.e., companies that earn income from export activities)

Transactions

Many businesses may be considering strategic transactions, such as acquiring another company, merging with a peer, selling certain assets, or purchasing new resources. Each of these actions can have multiple tax consequences. Tax considerations: 

  • Assess potential tax benefits or liabilities of strategic transactions before they take place as a part of the due diligence process
  • Identify loss companies and plan around utilizing losses and credits
  • Structure acquisitions and divestitures in a tax-efficient manner to increase after-tax cash flow

Innovation

As companies reconfigure their businesses to adapt to COVID-19 changes—from greater shifts to e-commerce to outsourced back office functions to partially remote work arrangements—they should determine how to use tax strategies to offset the costs of these investments. Tax considerations:  

  • Consider using federal, state, or even other countries’ R&D tax credits to offset costs of new products, processes, software, and other innovations
  • Explore whether previously undertaken activities may also qualify for these credits 

Regulations and legislation

As the economy improves, regulatory oversight likely will also increase. Noncompliance can be costly and can reverse much of the progress a business has made in its recovery. At the same time, additional tax law changes are likely on the horizon, and companies will need to be able to act quickly when they appear. Tax considerations

  • Ensure compliance with rules around federal funding received during the pandemic
  • Monitor tax regulatory and legislative developments at all levels, especially in the area of digital taxation, post-election tax reform, and federal, state, and local policy changes 
  • Scenario plan to outline the potential impact of future tax legislation on the company’s overall tax liabilities

Transformation

Staying ahead in the “new normal” means accelerating efforts around digital transformation to build a business with agility and resilience at its core. This should always include evolving the tax function. Businesses must strive to fully integrate processes, people, technology, and data to understand total tax liability and forecast how decisions and changes will impact their tax standing. Tax considerations

  • Collaborate with leadership and other areas of the business on a company-wide approach to digital transformation efforts
  • Establish a clear, shared vision of the future state of the tax department
  • Develop the business case for transformation efforts

Whatever pivots your business takes once the worst has passed, tax strategy needs to be an integral part of the plan to move forward. Evolving your tax strategy alongside business strategy will help prevent unforeseen costs and maximize potential savings.
 

Article
Tax relief strategies for resilience

Read this if you are a small business owner. 

We are living in an age of information overload. A quick Google search produces millions of results and a scroll through social media offers hundreds of views. We are able to access this endless data around the clock using these tiny devices, which we spend more time in our hands than not on most days. Unending technological advancements increase the ability of business stakeholders to consume data, and that amplified ability fuels a bigger demand for more data. It is widely claimed that financial reporting has become far too burdensome and often provides more confusion than information to end-users. While each item in the reporting package may very well help users to better appreciate the financial statements, the worth is being lost due to the volume of data in its entirety. 

Financial statement simplification

So, what does this information overload mean to business owners today, and can you really achieve financial statement simplification while still providing effective and relevant information to your stakeholders? Our answer is ‘YES!’ You can add immediate value to an entity’s financial statements, without a substantial investment of time, money, and resources. By creating a month-end checklist, defining stakeholders' needs, considering materiality, and automating the reporting process, your organization can not only simplify its financial reporting, but also add immense value.

When it comes to month-end close, your team may have a very clear understanding of what needs to be done and who is responsible for each task. However, documenting the process is crucial to provide clarity and simplification. Your month-end checklist can be used as a tool to keep everyone organized, outline due dates, and define roles and responsibilities. A month-end checklist would include tasks such as reviewing outstanding accounts receivable (AR) and accounts payable (AP), booking depreciation, adjusting prepaids and accruals, bank reconciliations and posting loan interest. This outline should serve as a forecasting guide to quantify resources needed for the month-end close.

Relevant and specific financial reporting

Whether it is your banking institution, investors, auditors, or management, it is important to identify which reports (and what targeted and specific information) each set of users will need and in what frequency they want it. Your organization may be producing excellent financial reporting that is too extensive and too frequent for your stakeholders' needs. Once you gather what each audience requires, it makes the process more efficient and the information for each audience more valuable.

The methods of accounting your company uses can have a material effect on the financial statements and their usefulness to end users. Materiality refers to the impact that a misstatement or omission of information can have on a company’s financial statements. Materiality varies based on the size of an entity; therefore, it is crucial that every member of your accounting team is aware of the materiality your organization has decided on using. It is important to note that when the cost of a method of accounting outweighs the benefit of doing so, you are able to depart from this accounting principle. Your company should revisit materiality on a regular basis, since eliminating some transactions can significantly reduce the amount of time required to issue financial statements.

Automation options for improved accuracy

Lastly, there are countless options available for not only automating your reporting process but minimizing time spent during the month on various accounting functions. These tools are not only effective in reducing labor and administrative costs but also improving accuracy by mitigating human error. Accounts payable tools like Bill.com and Expensify streamline your payments and approvals process and can save an average of 50% of time spent on AP, this is nearly 36 business days per year. 

Our team at BerryDunn is available to discuss your specific needs and help to recommend the best tools, processes, and procedures to simplify your financial reporting and month-end close process. 

Article
Simplify financial reporting with an expert at your doorstep

Read this if you are an employer. 

On March 13th, 2020, the President issued a national emergency declaration due to the novel Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic was designated as a federal disaster under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. This designation allows employers to make tax-free payments or reimbursements to employees as “qualified disaster payments” under Section 139 of the Internal Revenue Code (Section 139). 

Overview

Under Section 139, employers can reimburse or directly pay reasonable and necessary personal, family, living, or funeral expenses incurred as a result of a qualified disaster expenses incurred by the employee as a result of COVID-19 that are not otherwise reimbursed by insurance. The Internal Revenue Service has not provided guidance on what constitutes “reasonable and necessary” expenses with respect to COVID-19; however, such expenses could potentially include:

  • Medical expenses not covered by insurance (e.g., over-the-counter medication and cleaning supplies)
  • Expenses related to child care or tutoring
  • Expenses incurred to allow the employee to work from home (e.g., costs to set up a home office and increased utilities)
  • Lodging if the employee or a family member has to stay at a location besides his/her home to avoid a family member who has been diagnosed with COVID-19
  • Commuting expenses
  • Funeral expenses
  • Caregiver expenses
  • Legal and accounting expenses

Payments not eligible for relief under Section 139 include the following:

  • Non-essential, decorative, or luxury items or services
  • Wage replacement (e.g., paid sick or other leave)
  • Expenses compensated by insurance 

There are no limits on the dollar amount or frequency of qualified disaster payments. However, the payment(s) must be reasonably expected to be commensurate with the amount of unreimbursed reasonable and necessary COVID-19-related expenses. Employers may also provide assistance to any individual employee or to all employees with no discrimination restrictions.

Recordkeeping

Under Section 139, there are no administrative or substantiation requirements for the employee or the employer. While the IRS does not provide guidance on administering a program under Section 139, it is recommended that employers adopt a written policy that specifies the following:

  • The employees eligible under the plan
  • The administrative process and restrictions
  • Start and end date of the program
  • Types of expenses that will be paid or reimbursed on behalf of the employees
  • Amount of expenses that will be paid or reimbursed on behalf of the employees with a defined maximum amount per employee
  • How and when payments will be made

Tax implications―tax-free and fully deductible

The qualified disaster payments are tax-free to the employee and fully deductible to the employer. Additionally, payments are not subject to federal income or payroll tax withholding, and there are no federal disclosure or reporting requirements. While many states follow the federal treatment of qualified disaster payments, employers should determine any income tax or payroll tax withholding requirements on a state-by-state basis with their tax advisor.

Article
COVID-19 and Section 139: Tax-free payments or reimbursements to employees

Read this if you are a business owner or an advisor to business owners.

With continued uncertainty in the business environment stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, now may be a good time to utilize trust, gift, and estate strategies in the transfer of privately held business interests. 

As discussed in our May 26, 2020 article, 2020 estate strategies in times of uncertainty for privately held business owners, there may be opportunity to free up considerable portions of lifetime gift and estate tax exemption amounts. This is due to suppressed values of privately held businesses, the uncertainty surrounding the impact of the 2020 presidential election on tax rates, and future exemption and exclusion thresholds.

An element of consideration is the ability to transfer non-controlling interests in a business. These interests are potentially subject to discounts for lack of control and lack of marketability, which may further reduce the overall value transferred through a given strategy. You could potentially offload a larger percentage of ownership in a business while retaining large portions of the gift and estate lifetime exemption. Part I of this series focused on the discount for lack of control (“DLOC”). Part II focused on the discount for lack of marketability (“DLOM”). In Part III, let’s focus on the application of discounts.

Application of discounts

One area that often trips up people unfamiliar with business valuations is the application of the DLOC and DLOM. These discounts are multiplicative, not additive. The combined effect of a 10% DLOC and a 30% DLOM is not an additive result of 40%, rather a multiplicative result of 37% (mathematically, 1 – [(1 – DLOC) x (1 – DLOM)]). Consider the following example:

Julie has a 10% minority, nonmarketable interest in a business. The equity of the business is worth $1,000,000. Her interest has a pro-rata value of $100,000 (10% of $1,000,000). Julie retained a qualified valuation analyst, who estimated that a 10% discount for lack of control and a 30% discount for lack of marketability were appropriate for the valuation of her interest. The difference in applying these discounts correctly through a multiplicative process and incorrectly through an additive process is demonstrated in the following chart:

It does not matter the order in which a DLOC and a DLOM are applied. Because these discounts are multiplicative, applying either one first will not affect the concluded minority, nonmarketable value.

Conclusion

Business owners are knowledgeable of the facts and circumstances surrounding a business interest. They take a close look at what they are buying before they make an offer. Like most people, they like to be in charge, and they prefer investments that they can readily convert into cash should they so desire. Therefore, people are generally not willing to pay the pro-rata value for a minority interest in a business when the interest lacks control and marketability. To assess appropriate discounts for lack of control and discounts for lack of marketability, consider resources such as those referred to in Part I and Part II of this series, then ensure the selected discounts are appropriate based on the factors specific to the company and interest being valued. From there, the application of the DLOC and DLOM is multiplicative, not additive, as noted in the example above. 

Given the current environment, using trust, gift, and estate strategies that take advantage of discounts for lack of control and marketability offers the opportunity to transfer a higher percentage of interest in a privately held company at a lower value. This potentially frees up additional amounts of remaining thresholds of the lifetime gift and estate tax exemptions. 

Our mission at BerryDunn remains constant in helping each client create, grow, and protect value. If you have questions about your unique situation, or would like more information, please contact the business valuation consulting team.  

Article
Discounts for lack of control and marketability in business valuations (Part III)