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PPP loan forgiveness will likely impact your overhead rate!

08.18.20

Read this if you are an engineering or architecture firm working with government agencies reimbursing overhead established in an overhead rate schedule based on direct labor.

It seems everyone is both anxious to gain forgiveness of their PPP loans and worried about the ramifications of requesting and being granted forgiveness. There is so much you need to consider to understand the potential impact forgiveness may have on your future cash flow and revenues. Let’s focus, though, on your overhead rate.

Some things to consider:

  • PPP loan forgiveness may significantly reduce your overhead rate. As a result, future contracts and related revenues from federal, state, or local government agencies will be impacted. 

    Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 31.201-5 dictates that the applicable portion of any income, rebate, allowance, or other credit relating to any allowable cost and received by the contractor shall be credited to the government. If the credit will be used to reduce the indirect labor costs and rent, some of the largest costs of A/E firms, the overhead rate might be reduced by as much as 25% to 30%. 
  • Guidance on the timing of credit offset is still unclear.

    Do you offset 2020 expenses for forgiveness not settled until 2021 to better match cash flows and credit expenses relevant to forgiveness? Or reflect the forgiveness in the Schedule during the period forgiveness was formally received?
  • The IRS is currently communicating that the costs incurred to gain PPP loan forgiveness will not be deductible expenses, thus increasing 2020 taxable income.

    If your company is in a taxable position, federal income taxes will increase as a result and impact cash flows. And remember, federal income taxes are unallowable costs in overhead rate schedules under FAR Part 31.201-41.

Depending on the concentration of your contracts with federal agencies, the significance of overhead rate reimbursement on contract revenues and expectations for growth, it may actually be more beneficial to pay the loan back instead of asking for forgiveness.

The Department of Defense (DOD) weighs in:

Often the first agency to establish policy or make changes, the DOD has issued guidance in the form of answers to FAQs about CARES Act impacts on DOD pricing and contracting. Q23 specifically addresses the issue of PPP loan forgiveness. It states, “to the extent that PPP credits are allocable to costs allowable under contract, the Government should receive a credit or a reduction in billing for any PPP loans or loan payments that are forgiven.” You can read that and other CARES Act credit guidance here. Even if you don’t directly work with DoD, other federal agencies and state DOT’s generally adopt DoD’s guidance. 

What if we apply forgiveness credit against direct labor? 

You might wonder, why not just apply the credit against direct and indirect labor in proportion to the actual payroll paid during the PPP loan covered period? If this was possible, the overhead rate might actually increase. Unfortunately, billing the government for direct labor costs offset on the overhead rate schedule with the credit of PPP loan forgiveness would violate FAR Part 31 cost principles. Since you can’t bill for credited costs, revenues for contracts with government agencies would be further reduced. 

We advise a wait and see approach.

The best action plan to do right now is to wait for better and clearer guidance. Industry associations such as ACEC are advocating for more favorable PPP loan forgiveness treatment. Furthermore, there are still quite a few unanswered questions by the SBA. 

If you have any questions related to your overhead rate and the impact of PPP loan forgiveness on your revenue from contracts with government agencies, please contact us. We’re here to help. 


 

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  • Linda Roberts
    Principal
    Construction, Manufacturing, Real Estate
    P 207.541.2281

We have talked about the two recent GAAP updates for years now: 1) changes to the lease accounting and 2) changes to revenue recognition standards. We have speculated what the outcomes are going to be and how they will affect the financial statements, requirements for certain ratio calculations and the like, and finally we have some answers! Both standards were finalized and published, and will be in effect in 2019 and 2020. The new rules for both require more than a couple of hours of reading and can be very confusing.

Two questions we have heard recently: Are the changes intertwined? And do we now need to consider the new revenue recognition standard when we implement the new lease accounting? The answer is a resounding NO!

The new GAAP for revenue recognition is very clear about this: it specifically carves out lease contracts. As a matter of fact, accounting applied by lessors will not change significantly when the new lease rules come into effect. If you are a lessor, you will continue to classify the majority of operating leases as operating leases, and will recognize lease income for those leases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. However, if you find the new rules confusing, your BerryDunn team is standing by to help you get the answers you need.

Article
New lease and revenue recognition rules: Mutually exclusive

The good news? When it comes to revenue recognition, tax law isn’t changing. The bad news? Thanks to new revenue recognition rules, book to tax differences are changing. And because tax prep generally starts with book income, this means that the construction industry, among others, will need to start changing their thinking about tax liability, too.

The goal of the new rules is to establish standards for reporting useful information in financial statements about the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue from long-term contracts with customers. The standards aim to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue. You can apply standards consistently across various transactions, industries, and capital markets — in order to improve financial reporting by creating common guidance for U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The core principle is that you should recognize revenue in an amount and at a time that aligns with expectations for the actual amount to be earned when it is actually earned (i.e., when the goods or services are delivered). That’s different from what we do today. Here are some areas affected by the changes:

Uninstalled materials

Under current GAAP, the costs of uninstalled materials, if constructed specifically for the job, are included in the job cost. Under the new GAAP, contractors will recognize the revenue only to the extent of the cost or will capitalize them as inventory—you will recognize profits later. For tax purposes, uninstalled materials are still included in the job cost. You will have to recognize profits for tax purposes sooner than for book purposes.

Multiple performance obligations

Under the new GAAP, you may have to segregate one contract into two or more performance obligations — those revenues are recognized separately. For tax purposes, it is very difficult to segregate a contract (it requires a tax commissioner’s prior written consent) so a contractor might have to show one contract for tax purposes and two or three contracts for book purposes. For example, if you have a contract for a design build project and generally bid separately for the design phase and construction phase of this type of project, you might have to separate this contract into two performance obligations. For tax purposes, you will continue to treat this project as a single contract. These contracts most likely will have different profit margins and you will have to recognize revenue at a different pace.

 Variable consideration

Under current GAAP, contractors can’t recognize revenue on bonus payments until they are realized, usually at the end of the project. Under the new GAAP, contractors need to gauge the probability of the bonus payments’ being received and may have to include some or all of the bonus payments in the contract price — you will have to recognize revenue sooner. For tax purposes, variable considerations are included in the contract price when contractors can reasonably expect to collect them. The general practice is that tax follows what you record for books for the total contract price. Does this mean that you have to recognize revenue for tax purposes sooner, too? Or will it create a book to tax difference, subject to judgement? The IRS may be issuing some guidance on these issues.

Deferred taxes

With changes in book to tax differences due to changes in timing of when you recognize profits, there will also be a change in deferred taxes.

After implementing the new GAAP, you will need to segregate items like variable consideration and uninstalled materials. Even if your tax method doesn’t change, will you need to maintain and provide the information needed for tax return purposes? More companies might ask the IRS for permission to make accounting method changes for federal income tax purposes. The IRS may consider allowing an automatic method change in order to help companies conform more easily to the new standards. The IRS will also provide guidance on how the new revenue recognition rules affect tax reporting.  

Accounting for GAAP purposes isn’t the same thing as accounting for tax purposes. But when it comes to the new revenue recognition rules, things can get complicated. To learn more about accounting method changes you might need to make, get in touch with your BerryDunn team today and see how the rules may affect your company.

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The new revenue recognition rules: Contractors, are you ready for tax Implications?

Read this is you are a business owner or an advisor to business owners.

With continued uncertainty in the business environment stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, now may be a good time to utilize trust, gift, and estate strategies in the transfer of privately held business interests. 

As discussed in our May 26, 2020 blog post 2020 estate strategies in times of uncertainty for privately held business owners, there may be opportunity to free up considerable portions of lifetime gift and estate tax exemption amounts through transfers due to suppressed values of privately held businesses, and the uncertainty surrounding the impact of the 2020 presidential election on tax rates and future exemption and exclusion thresholds. 

An element to consider when building on this opportunity is the ability to transfer non-controlling interests in a business. These interests are potentially subject to discounts for lack of control and lack of marketability. This may further reduce the overall value transferred through a given strategy, potentially offloading a larger percentage of ownership in a business while retaining large portions of the gift and estate lifetime exemption. Let’s focus on the discount for lack of control (DLOC).

Discount for lack of control

In the context of a hypothetical willing buyer and willing seller, the buyer may place a greater value on an ownership interest with the ability to make changes at their discretion, compared to an alternative ownership interest lacking control. Simply put, buyers like to be in control, and they will pay less for the investment if the interest lacks these characteristics. 

When valuing non-controlling business interests there is an inherent discount to full value recognized to reflect the fact that the subject interest does not hold a controlling position. As a result of this discount, the value of a non-controlling interest in a company will differ from the pro-rata value per share of the entire company. DLOCs alone commonly reduce the value of the transferred interest by 5% to 15%.

All else being equal, a non-controlling ownership position is less desirable (valuable) than a controlling position. This is because of the majority owner’s right to control any or all of the following activities: managing the assets or selecting agents for this purpose, controlling major business decisions, asset allocation choices, setting salary levels, admitting new investors, acquiring assets, selling the company, and declaring/paying distributions.
 
Market-based evidence of proxies for DLOCs can be found within the following subscription-based databases (including, but not limited to): 

  • Control premium studies published in the Mergerstat® Review series by FactSet Mergerstat/Business Valuation Resources
  • Closed-end fund data
  • The Partnership Profiles, Inc. Minority Interest Database and Executive Summary Report on Re-Sale Discounts for applicable entity types

In addition to these resources, to fully assess the degree of discount applicable to a subject interest, consider company-specific factors when estimating the DLOC. The degree of control for a subject interest may be impacted by relevant state statutes and the governing documents of the subject company. These factors are analyzed in conjunction with the current operational and financial policies established and implemented in practice by management to establish a comprehensive view on the applicable degree of discount.

Conclusion

Hypothetical business owners are knowledgeable of the facts and circumstances surrounding a business interest. They take a close look at what they are buying before they make an offer. Like most people, they like to be in charge, and are therefore generally not willing to pay the pro-rata value for a minority interest in a business when the interest lacks control. To assess an appropriate discount for lack of control, consider resources such as those referred to above, then ensure the selected discounts are appropriate based on the factors specific to the company and interest being valued. 

Our mission at BerryDunn remains constant in helping each client create, grow, and protect value. If you have questions about your unique situation, or would like more information, please contact the business valuation consulting team.

Article
Discounts for lack of control and marketability in business valuations

Read this if you are a home health agency (HHA).

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) proposed rule, CY2021, was published on June 30, 2020. The proposed rule indicates that the Request for Advance Payment (RAP) currently permitted will be eliminated for all 30-day home health periods beginning on or after January 1, 2021. If adopted, this proposed rule will impact the timing of cash flow for HHAs. HHAs will no longer receive an advanced payment, but rather will not be paid until approximately 45-60 days after the period of care has begun. The change in timing of the payment should be considered as part of your HHA’s cash flow forecasting.

Note: Although the RAP payment has been eliminated, HHAs will still be required to submit a zero dollar RAP bill at the beginning of each 30-day period to establish home health services. 

Also included in the proposed rule is a transition from a RAP to a Notice of Admission (NOA) in 2022. This is similar to the Notice of Election under the hospice benefit, since there will no longer be a RAP. It is proposed that HHAs would submit a one-time NOA that establishes care in place of the RAP for the patient until discharged. 

There will be a payment penalty if either the zero dollar RAP in CY2021 or NOA in 2022 is not submitted within five calendar days from the start of care. The penalty is proposed to be a payment reduction of 1/13th to the wage and case-mix adjusted 30-day period of care reimbursement for each day late until submitted, reducing the total reimbursement for patient care. HHAs should be monitoring the timeliness of RAP submissions to be prepared for this proposed change and avoid potential reimbursement reduction if this proposed rule is passed. Read the entire proposed rule.

Please contact a BerryDunn Home Health team member to assist you with evaluating the cash flow impact these proposed changes may have to your organization. 

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Medicare Home Health Notice of Admission Proposed Rule CY2021 and its cash flow impact

Read this if you are an employer.

Note: The tax deferral situation is very fluid, and information may change frequently. Please check back for updates.

The Treasury Department and Internal Revenue Service released Notice 2020-65 on August 28th, addressing the following questions highlighted in our earlier payroll tax deferral article.

Does the employer or the employee elect to defer taxes?

Notice 2020-65 provides that Affected Taxpayers are defined for purposes of the Notice as the employer, not employee. Therefore, employers will have to choose whether or not to opt-in and defer taxes. Important to note: while the notice doesn’t specifically state that deferral is optional, the IRS press release implies that it is. 

It is unclear if an employee can elect out of the payroll tax deferral, if their employer elects to defer taxes. Absent guidance, it seems that an employer who elects to defer the payroll tax should apply the payroll tax deferral to all employees and not permit an employee to elect out of the deferral. 

The other question for an employer is whether the payroll software will be able to accommodate the deferral feature as of September 1st. It seems highly unlikely that payroll software will be ready for the September 1st effective date. Employers should reach out to their payroll vendor to determine when the system/software will be ready.

How do bonuses, commissions, or other irregular payroll items impact the $4,000/biweekly compensation limit?

Per the Notice, Applicable Wages include wages as defined in Internal Revenue Code (“Code”) Section 3121(a) (i.e., wages for withholding FICA taxes) or compensation as defined in Code Section 3231(e) (i.e., wages for the Railroad Retirement tax) only if the amount of such wages or compensation paid for a bi-weekly pay period is less than the threshold amount of $4,000, or the equivalent threshold amount with respect to other pay periods. Additionally, the Notice states that the determination of Applicable Wages is made on a "pay-period-by-pay period" basis. Therefore, Applicable Wages would include items such as bonuses and commissions. For example, if a bonus of $2,000 caused an employee’s total Applicable Wages to exceed the $4,000 bi-weekly threshold for the respective pay period to which it relates, deferral would not be required for that pay period. In other words, payroll tax deferral applies to Applicable Wages of $4,000 or less for any bi-weekly pay period (or the equivalent threshold for other pay periods) irrespective of amounts paid in other pay periods.

Based on the guidance, an employer’s payroll system will need to be programmed to automatically monitor the $4,000 bi-weekly threshold and accumulate the tax deferral for each employee.

When and how are amounts deferred due to be paid by the employee?

An employer must withhold and pay the deferred taxes ratably from wages and compensation paid between January 1, 2021 and April 30, 2021. Interest, penalties, and additions to tax will begin to accrue on May 1, 2021 with respect to any unpaid taxes.

This means that employers who elect to initiate the payroll tax deferral will double the Social Security tax withholding during the first four months of 2021. The President’s memorandum issued on August 8th states that Secretary of the Treasury shall explore avenues, including legislation, to eliminate the obligation to pay the taxes deferred pursuant to the implementation of this memorandum. However, only Congress can pass legislation to forgive the uncollected taxes, and has thus far been unwilling to do so.

What happens if an employee who is deferring taxes stops working for the employer? Is the employer responsible for collecting the taxes that were deferred?

This question is not addressed; however, the Notice does provide that an employer may make arrangements to otherwise collect the total taxes from the employee, if other than ratably from wages and compensation.

Employers electing to implement the payroll tax deferral may be assuming unnecessary financial risk related to employees who terminate employment during the period of deferral or during the period of repayment. Prior to initiating the payroll tax deferral, an employer will need to determine (and communicate to employees) how it will collect any unpaid tax deferrals when an employee terminates employment. For example, an employer could decide to withhold the deferred taxes from the employee’s final paycheck, if it can do so legally. Further guidance is necessary so an employer can determine the appropriate way to receive payment from employees who terminate employment.

Notice 2020-65 leaves many questions still unanswered.

Most notably, who is responsible for the taxes if an employer is unable to withhold due to an employee terminating employment? The IRS issued a draft version of a revised Form 941 to take into account the deferred payroll taxes.

Additional guidance will hopefully be forthcoming. Until further guidance is issued and payroll systems are updated, it is difficult for an employer to initiate the payroll tax deferral. 
 
 

Article
Payroll tax deferral update

Read this if you are an employer.

President Trump signed a memorandum on August 8 (hereinafter the “Memorandum”) ordering the Treasury Department to defer the withholding, deposit, and payment of the Social Security portion of the payroll taxes during the period September 1 through December 31, 2020. 

We have heard from a few employers who have employees asking them when the tax withholding will stop since September 1st is right around the corner. The short answer for employers and employees is the withholding deferral will begin “when Treasury and/or the IRS issues guidance”.

“Defer” and “deferral” are underlined for a reason. Employees must understand that the Memorandum provides for a “deferral” of the Social Security tax. The tax is not eliminated for the period September 1st through December 31st. This means that while an employee may enjoy some additional take-home pay during the period of deferral, the amounts deferred must still be paid to the IRS at some point. Only Congress can eliminate the payroll tax.

This is what we know so far:

  • The deferral only applies to the employee’s share of the Social Security taxes. It does not apply to the employee’s share of the Medicare taxes.
  • The deferral is only available to an employee with biweekly income of $4,000 or less, which translates to annual income of $104,000. 
  • Amounts deferred pursuant to the Memorandum shall be deferred without any penalties or interest.
  • For example, an employee earning $40,000 annually could potentially defer approximately $825 in payroll taxes and would need to pay that amount at a future date.

There are many open questions for both employees and employers to consider. Therefore, it is nearly impossible to move forward with the tax deferral guidance outlined in the memorandum. 

So, what are the operations questions that employers and employees need answers to before any deferrals can begin? Here are some that come to mind:

  • Does the employer or the employee elect to defer taxes?
  • If it is an employee election, how is that election made?
  • How do bonuses, commissions, or other irregular payroll items impact the $4,000/biweekly compensation limit?
  • When and how are amounts deferred due to be paid by the employee?
  • Are the amounts deferred repaid in a lump sum or in installments?
  • How does an employer report the deferred taxes to the IRS?
  • What happens if an employee who is deferring taxes stops working for the employer? Is the employer responsible for collecting the taxes that were deferred?
  • How quickly can payroll systems be set up to accommodate the payroll deferral?

At the moment, all employees and employers can do is wait for the relevant guidance. Hopefully, guidance is issued soon but it is unlikely any employees can begin the tax deferral on September 1st. 

As soon as guidance is issued, we will be sure to communicate the requirements and timing.

Article
To withhold or not to withhold payroll taxes―The dilemma facing employers

Read this if you are a Maine business or organization that has been affected by COVID-19. 

The State of Maine has released a $200 million Maine Economic Recovery Grant Program for companies and organizations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Here is a brief outline of the program from the state, and a list of eligibility requirements. 

“The State of Maine plans to use CARES Act relief funding to help our economy recover from the impacts of the global pandemic by supporting Maine-based businesses and non-profit organizations through an Economic Recovery Grant Program. The funding originates from the federal Coronavirus Relief Fund and will be awarded in the form of grants to directly alleviate the disruption of operations suffered by Maine’s small businesses and non-profits as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Maine Department of Economic & Community Development has been working closely with affected Maine organizations since the beginning of this crisis and has gathered feedback from all sectors on the current challenges.”

Eligibility requirements for the program from the state

To qualify for a Maine Economic Recovery Grant your business/organization must: 

  • Demonstrate a need for financial relief based on lost revenues minus expenses incurred since March 1, 2020 due to COVID-19 impacts or related public health response; 
  • Employ a combined total of 50 or fewer employees and contract employees;
  • Have significant operations in Maine (business/organization headquartered in Maine or have a minimum of 50% of employees and contract employees based in Maine); 
  • Have been in operation for at least one year before August 1, 2020; 
  • Be in good standing with the Maine Department of Labor; 
  • Be current and in good standing with all Maine state payroll taxes, sales taxes, and state income taxes (as applicable) through July 31, 2020;
  • Not be in bankruptcy; 
  • Not have permanently ceased all operations; 
  • Be in consistent compliance and not be under any current or past enforcement action with COVID-19 Prevention Checklist Requirements; and 
  • Be a for-profit business or non-profit organization, except
    • Professional services 
    • 501(c)(4), 501(c)(6) organizations that lobby 
    • K-12 schools, including charter, public and private
    • Municipalities, municipal subdivisions, and other government agencies 
    • Assisted living and retirement communities 
    • Nursing homes
    • Foundations and charitable trusts 
    • Trade associations 
    • Credit unions
    • Insurance trusts
    • Scholarship funds and programs 
    • Gambling 
    • Adult entertainment 
    • Country clubs, golf clubs, other private clubs 
    • Cemetery trusts and associations 
    • Fraternal orders 
    • Hospitals, nursing facilities, institutions of higher education, and child care organizations (Alternate funding available through the Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services for hospitals, nursing facilities, child care organizations, and institutions of higher education.)

For more information

If you feel you qualify, you can find more details and the application here. If you have questions about your eligibility, please contact us. We’re here to help. 

Article
$200 Million Maine Economic Recovery Grant Program released

Read this if your company is seeking assistance under the PPP.

The rules surrounding PPP continue to rapidly evolve. As of June 22, 2020, we are anticipating some additional clarifications in the form of an interim final rule (or IFR) and additional answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ). The FAQs were last updated on May 27, 2020. For the latest information, please be sure to check our website or the Treasury website.

A few important changes:

  1. The loan forgiveness application, and instructions, have been updated.
  2. There is a new EZ form, designed to streamline the forgiveness process, if borrowers meet certain criteria.
  3. Changes now allow for businesses to use 60% of the PPP loan proceeds on payroll costs, down from 75%.
  4. Businesses now have 24 weeks to use the loan proceeds, rather than the original eight-week period (or by December 31, 2020, whichever comes earlier).
  5. The rules around what is a full-time equivalent (FTE) employee and the safe harbors with respect to employment levels and forgiveness have been clarified.
  6. Entities can defer payroll taxes through the ERC program, even if forgiveness is granted.

These changes are designed to make it easier to qualify for loan forgiveness. In the event you do not qualify for loan forgiveness, you may be able to extend the loan to five years, as opposed to the original two years.

The relaxation on FTE reductions is significant. The reductions will NOT count against you when calculating forgiveness, even if you haven’t restored the same employment level, if you can document that:

  • you offered employment to people and they refused to come back, or
  • HHS, CDC, OSHA or other government intervention causes an inability to “return to the same level of business activity” as of 2/15/2020.

As of June 20, 2020, there was still an additional $128 billion in available funds. The program is intended to fund new loans through June 30, 2020. 

We’re here to help.
If you have questions about the PPP, contact a BerryDunn professional.

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PPP loan forgiveness: Updates