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Sales & use tax: A potential trap for
non-U
.S. entities

12.06.18

A common pitfall for inbound sellers is applying the same concepts used to adopt “no tax” positions made for federal income tax purposes to determinations concerning sales and use tax compliance. Although similar conceptually, separate analyses are required for each determination.

For federal income tax purposes, inbound sellers that are selling goods to customers in the U.S. and do not have a fixed place of business or dependent agent in the U.S. have, traditionally, been able to rely on their country’s income tax treaty with the U.S. for “no tax” positions. Provided that the non-U.S. entity did not have a “permanent establishment” in the U.S., it was shielded from federal income tax and would have a limited federal income tax compliance obligation.

States, however, are generally not bound by comprehensive income tax treaties made with the U.S. Thus, non-U.S. entities can find themselves unwittingly subject to state and local sales and use tax compliance obligations even though they are protected from a federal income tax perspective. With recent changes in U.S. tax law, the burden of complying with sales and use tax filing and collection requirements has increased significantly.

Does your company have a process in place to deal with these new state and local tax compliance obligations?

What has changed? Wayfair—it’s got what a state needs

As a result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc., non-U.S. entities that have sales to customers in the U.S. may have unexpected sales and use tax filing obligations on a go-forward basis. Historically, non-U.S. entities did not have a sales and use tax compliance obligation when they did not have a physical presence in states where the sales occurred.

In Wayfair, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a state is no longer bound by the physical presence standard in order for it to impose its sales and use tax regime on entities making sales within the state. The prior physical presence standard was set forth in precedent established by the Supreme Court and was used to determine if an entity had sufficient connection with a state (i.e., nexus) to necessitate a tax filing and collection requirement.

Before the Wayfair ruling, an entity had to have a physical presence (generally either through employees or property located in a state) in order to be deemed to have nexus with the state. The Wayfair ruling overturned this precedent, eliminating the physical presence requirement. Now, a state can deem an entity to have nexus with the state merely for exceeding a certain level of sales or transactions with in-state customers. This is a concept referred to as “economic nexus.”

The Court in Wayfair determined that the state law in South Dakota providing a threshold of $100,000 in sales or more than 200 sale transactions occurring within the state is sufficient for economic nexus to exist with the state. This is good news for hard-pressed states and municipalities in search of more revenue. Since this ruling, there has been a flurry of new state legislation across the country. Like South Dakota, states are actively passing tax laws with similar bright-line tests to determine when entities have economic nexus and, therefore, a sales and use tax collection and filing requirement.

How this impacts non-U.S. entities

This can be a trap for non-U.S. entities making sales to customers in the U.S. Historically, non-U.S. entities lacking a U.S. physical presence generally only needed to navigate federal income tax rules.

Inbound sellers without a physical presence in the U.S. may have very limited experience with state and local tax compliance obligations. When considering all of the state and local tax jurisdictions that exist in the U.S. (according to the Tax Foundation there are more than 10,000 sales tax jurisdictions), the number of sales and use tax filing obligations can be significant. Depending on the level of sales activity within the U.S., a non-U.S. entity can quickly become inundated with the time and cost of sales and use tax compliance.

Next steps

Going forward, non-U.S. entities selling to customers in the U.S. should be aware of those states that have economic nexus thresholds and adopt procedures so they are prepared for their sales and use tax compliance obligations in real time. These tax compliance obligations will generally require an entity to register to do business in the state, collect sales tax from customers, and file regular tax returns, usually monthly or quarterly.

It is important to note when an entity has an obligation to collect sales tax, it will be liable for any sales tax due to a state, regardless of whether the sales tax is actually collected from the customer. It is imperative to stay abreast of these complex legislative changes in order to be compliant.

At BerryDunn, our tax professionals work with a number of non-U.S. companies that face international, state, and local tax issues. If you would like to discuss your particular circumstances, contact one of the experienced professionals in our state and local tax (“SALT”) practice.

Read this if you are a residential living facility.

At the end of last year, Congress and the IRS brought about changes to the application of the business interest expense deduction limitation rules with regard to taxpayers that wish to make a real property trade or business (RPTOB) election. This change may benefit owners and operators of qualified residential living facilities. Here’s what we know.

Background

Section 163(j) generally limits the amount of a taxpayer’s business interest expense that can be deducted each year. The term “business interest” means any interest that is properly allocable to a “trade or business,” which could include an electing RPTOB. The term “trade or business” has not been separately defined for purposes of Section 163(j), however, it has been defined for purposes of the passive activity loss rules under Section 469(c)(7)(C) as any real property development, redevelopment, construction, reconstruction, acquisition, conversion, rental, operation, management, leasing or brokerage trade or business.

In general, a taxpayer engaged in a trade or business that manages or operates a “qualified residential living facility” may elect to be treated as an RPTOB solely for the purpose of applying the interest expense rules under Section 163(j). Taxpayers that make an RPTOB election to avoid being subject to the business interest deduction limitation under Section 163(j) must use the alternative depreciation system (ADS) to compute depreciation expense for property described in Section 168(g)(8), which includes residential rental property.

In Notice 2020-59, issued on July 28, 2020, the IRS and Treasury proposed a revenue procedure providing a safe harbor for purposes of determining whether a taxpayer meets the definition of a qualified residential living facility and is therefore eligible to make the RPTOB election. Following review of comments submitted in response to Notice 2020-59, the Treasury Department and IRS published Revenue Procedure 2021-9 (Rev. Proc. 2021-9) on December 29, 2020. Rev. Proc. 2021-9 modifies the proposed safe harbor under Notice 2020-59 to make it more broadly applicable and less administratively burdensome. 

Additionally, the emergency coronavirus relief package signed into law on December 27, 2020 contains a taxpayer-favorable provision that modifies the recovery period applicable to residential rental property (including retirement care facilities) placed in service before January 1, 2018 for taxpayers making the RPTOB election.

Modifications to the RPTOB safe harbor under Rev. Proc. 2021

Under Rev. Proc. 2021-9, a residential living facility will be eligible to make the RPTOB election providing the facility:

  1. Consists of multiple rental dwelling units within one or more buildings or structures that generally serve as primary residences on a permanent or semi-permanent basis to individual customers or patients;
  2. Provides supplemental assistive, nursing, or other routine medical services; and
  3. Has an average period of customer or patient use of individual rental dwelling units of 30 days or more.

Alternatively, if the residential living facility qualifies as residential rental property under Section 168(e)(2)(A), it will be treated as an RPTOB for purposes of the revenue procedure. Thus in response to comments submitted to the Treasury Department and the IRS, Rev. Proc. 2021-9 modified the proposed safe harbor published in Notice 2020-59 in several important ways, including the following:

  • The definition of a qualified residential living facility has been modified to reduce the required average period of customer or patient use from 90 to 30 days. Further, the average period of use may be determined by reference to either the number of days paid for by Medicare or Medicaid, or the number of days under a formal contract or other written agreement.

This modification is a welcome change from the proposed safe harbor contained in Notice 2020-59. Medicare and Medicaid frequently cover patient stays of less than 90 days. Consequently, reducing the required number of days of use and allowing for determination with reference to days paid by Medicare or Medicaid should allow a greater number of facilities to qualify under the safe harbor.

  • Rev. Proc. 2021-9 provides an alternative test for purposes of determining whether a taxpayer meets certain requirements of the definition of a qualified residential living facility. Under this alternative test, if a taxpayer operates or manages residential living facilities that qualify as residential rental property for depreciation purposes, then the facility will be considered a qualified residential living facility for purposes of Section 163(j).

The administrative burden on taxpayers should be significantly reduced by allowing reliance on separate determinations made for depreciation purposes. Taxpayers will not be required to consider two distinct tests.

  • Rev. Proc. 2021-9 clarifies that the determination of whether a facility meets the definition of a qualified residential living facility must be determined on an annual basis. 

Under general rules, once a taxpayer makes the RPTOB election, the election remains in effect for subsequent years. Taxpayers relying on this safe harbor cannot depart from these rules as there is a continuing requirement to evaluate qualification on an annual basis. To the extent a taxpayer fails to meet the safe harbor requirements, it may become subject to the business interest deduction limitations under Section 163(j). Unless otherwise provided in future guidance, this would not appear to constitute an accounting method change.

Important Considerations to apply the safe harbor under Rev. Proc. 2021-9

Qualifying taxpayers may rely on the safe harbor contained in Rev. Proc. 2021-9 for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. Further, if a taxpayer relies on the safe harbor, the taxpayer must use the ADS of Section 168(g) to depreciate the property described in Section 168(g)(8), as discussed above.

The changes under Rev. Proc. 2021-9 could open the door for taxpayers who qualify in a previous year (i.e., 2018 and 2019) as a result of the new rules to amend prior returns (for example, taxpayers that now qualify for the RPTOB election using the 30-day threshold average use instead of the 90-day average).

For purposes of applying the safe harbor, for any taxable year subsequent to the taxable year in which a taxpayer relies on the safe harbor to make the RPTOB election in which a taxpayer does not satisfy the safe harbor requirements, the taxpayer is deemed to have ceased to engage in the electing RPTOB (i.e., the taxpayer will likely be subject to the business interest expense limitations of Section 163(j)). However, for any subsequent taxable year in which a taxpayer satisfies the safe harbor requirements after a deemed cessation of the electing trade or business, the taxpayer’s initial election will be automatically reinstated.

To rely on this safe harbor, a taxpayer must retain books and records to substantiate that all of the above requirements are met each year. Taxpayers are not eligible to rely on the safe harbor in this revenue procedure if a principal purpose of an arrangement or transaction is to avoid Section 163(j) and its regulations in its entirety, and in a manner that is contrary to the purpose of Rev. Proc. 2021-9.

If you have specific questions about your facility or tax situation, please contact Jason Favreau or Matthew Litz. We’re here to help.

Article
Taxpayer-friendly changes for qualified residential living facilities

Read this if you are a business owner or interested in upcoming changes to current tax law.

As Joe Biden prepares to be inaugurated as the 46th President of the United States, and Congress is now controlled by Democrats, his tax policy takes center stage.

Although the Democrats hold the presidency and both houses of Congress for the next two years, any changes in tax law may still have to be passed through budget reconciliation, because 60 votes in the Senate generally are needed to avoid that process. Both in 2017 and 2001, passing tax legislation through reconciliation meant that most of the changes were not permanent; that is, they expired within the 10-year budget window. Here is a comparison of current tax law with Biden’s proposed tax plan.

Current Tax Law
(TCJA–present)
Biden’s stated goals
Corporate tax rates and AMT

Corporations have a flat 21% tax rate and no corporate alternative minimum tax (AMT), which were both changed by the TCJA.

These do not expire.

Biden would raise the flat rate to the pre-TCJA level of 28% and reinstate the corporate AMT, requiring corporations to pay the greater of their regular corporate income tax or the 15% minimum tax (while still allowing for net operating loss (NOL) and foreign tax credits).

Capital gains and Qualified Dividend Income

The top tax rate is 20% for income over $441,450 for individuals and $496,600 for married filing jointly. There is an additional 3.8% net investment income tax.

Biden would eliminate breaks for long-term capital gains and dividends for income above $1 million. Instead, these would be taxed at ordinary rates.

Payroll taxes

The 12.4% payroll tax is divided evenly between employers and employees and applies to the first $137,700 of an individual’s income (scheduled to go up to $142,400 in 2020). There is also a 2.9% Medicare Tax which is split equally between the employer and the employee with no income limit.

Biden would maintain the 12.4% tax split between employers and employees and keep the $142,400 cap but would institute the tax on earned income above $400,000. The gap between the two wage levels would gradually close with annual inflationary increases.

International taxes (GILTI, offshoring)

GILTI (Global Intangible Low-Tax Income): Established by the TCJA, U.S. multinationals are required to pay a foreign tax rate of between 10.5% and 13.125%.

A scheduled increase in the effective rate to 16.406% is scheduled to begin in 2026.

Offshoring taxes: The TCJA includes a tax deduction for corporations that manufacture in the U.S. and sell overseas.

GILTI: Biden would double the tax rate to 21% and assess a minimum tax on a country-by-country basis.

Offshoring taxes: Biden would establish a 10% penalty surtax on profits for goods and services manufactured offshore and a 10% advanceable “Made in America” tax credit to create U.S. manufacturing jobs. Biden would also close offshoring tax loopholes in the TCJA.

Estate taxes

The estate tax exemption for 2020 is $11,580,000. Transfers of appreciated property at death get a step-up in basis.

The exemption is scheduled to revert to pre-TCJA levels.

Biden would return the estate tax to 2009 levels, eliminate the current step-up in basis on inherited assets, and eliminate the step-up at death provision for inherited property passed along by the decedent.

Individual tax rates

The top marginal rate is 37% for income over $518,400 for individuals and $622,050 for married filing jointly. This was lowered from 39.6% pre-TCJA.

Biden would restore the 39.6% rate for taxable income above $400,000. This represents only the top rate.

Individual tax credits

Currently, individuals can claim a maximum of $2,000 Child Tax Credit (CTC) plus a $500 dependent credit.

Individuals may claim a maximum dependent care credit of $600 ($1,200 for two or more children).

The CTC is scheduled to revert to pre-TCJA levels ($1,000) after 2025.

Biden would expand the CTC to $3,000 for children age 17 and under and offer a $600 bonus for children age 6 and under. It would also be fully refundable.

He has also proposed increasing the child and dependent care tax credit to $8,000 ($16,000 for two or more children), and he has proposed a new tax credit of up to $5,000 for informal caregivers.

Separately, Biden has also proposed a $15,000 tax credit for first-time homebuyers.

Qualified Business Income Deduction under Section 199A

As previously discussed, many businesses qualify for a 20% qualified business income tax deduction lowering the effective rate of tax for S corporation shareholders and partners in partnerships to 29.6% for qualifying businesses.

Biden would phase out the tax benefits associated with the qualified business income deduction for those making more than $400,000 annually.

Education

Forgiven student loan debt is included in taxable income.

There is no tax credit for contributions to state-authorized organizations that sponsor scholarships.

Biden would exclude forgiven student loan debt from taxable income.

Small businesses

There are current tax credits for some of the costs to start a retirement plan.

Biden would offer tax credits for businesses that adopt a retirement savings plan and offer most workers without a pension or 401(k) access to an “automatic 401(k)”.

Itemized deductions

For 2020, the standard deduction is $12,400 for single/married filing separately and $24,800 for married filing jointly.

After 2025, the standard deduction is scheduled to revert to pre-TCJA amounts, or $6,350 for single /married filing separately and $12,700 for married filing jointly.

The TCJA suspended the personal exemption and most individual deductions through 2025.

It also capped the SALT deduction at $10,000, which will remain in place until 2025, unless repealed.

Biden would enact a provision that would cap the tax benefit of itemized deductions at 28%.

SALT cap: Senate minority leader Charles Schumer has pledged to repeal the cap should Biden win in November (the House of Representatives has already passed legislation to repeal the SALT cap).

Opportunity Zones

Biden has proposed incentivizing - opportunity zone funds to partner with community organizations and have the Treasury Department review the program’s regulations of the tax incentives. He would also increase reporting and public disclosure requirements.
Alternative energy Biden would expand renewable energy tax credits and credits for residential energy efficiency and restore the Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) and the Electric Vehicle Tax Credit.


If you have questions about your specific situation, please contact us. We’re here to help.

Article
Biden's tax plan and what may change from current tax law

Read this if you are a renewable energy company, investor, or related business.

Maine recently released a Climate Action Plan to address Maine’s climate future. Titled Maine Won’t Wait, the extensive plan tapped experts from across industries and professions to create a comprehensive blueprint for Maine’s climate future. BerryDunn is one of many Maine businesses to sign on in support of the plan, and will endeavor to help make it become a reality in the years, and decades to come. The far-reaching, ambitious plan covers many areas to address climate change, and renewable energy takes center stage. 

From the plan: In June 2019, Governor Janet Mills signed LD 1679 into law, with strong support from the Maine Legislature, to create the Maine Climate Council. The Council—an assembly of scientists, industry leaders, bipartisan local and state officials, and engaged citizens—was charged with developing this four-year Climate Action Plan to put Maine on a trajectory to decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 45% by 2030 and 80% by 2050, and achieve carbon neutrality by 2045.

Highlighted strategies of Maine's Climate Action Plan include:

  • Embrace the future of transportation in Maine 
  • Modernize Maine’s buildings: Energy-efficient, smart and cost-effective homes and businesses
  • Reduce carbon emissions in Maine’s energy and industrial sectors through clean energy
  • Grow Maine’s clean-energy economy and protect our natural resource industries 

Renewable energy opportunities

These strategies provide many opportunities for renewable energy companies to grow their businesses, increase the renewable workforce in Maine, and have a major impact on the success of Maine’s climate future. The plan also states that Maine will: 

  • Achieve an electricity grid where 80% of Maine’s usage comes from renewable generation by 2030
  • Launch a workforce initiative by 2022 that establishes ongoing stakeholder coordination between industry, educational, and training organizations to support current and future workforce needs
  • Establish programs and partnerships by 2022 for clean-tech innovation support to encourage the creation of clean-energy and climate solutions
  • More than double the number of Maine’s clean-energy and energy-efficiency jobs by 2030 

The plan recommends that Maine commit to increasing its current clean-energy workforce, while establishing new supply chains for Maine-based manufacturers to create sustained, good-paying skilled-labor jobs across the state.

As Maine heads toward a cleaner energy future, the plan sets up strong opportunities for renewable companies to play a large role in creating a sustainable renewable energy economy. You can read the full plan here. If you have any questions about the potential for your renewable energy business, contact the team. We’re here to help.

Article
Maine's Climate Action Plan unveiled: Renewable energy to play a big role

Read this if you are a renewable energy developer, installer, or investor.

Renewable energy has what amounts to an 18-month opportunity to make major strides before the mid-term elections. During the mid-terms, all 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives and 34 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate will be contested. Thirty-nine state and territorial gubernatorial and numerous other state and local elections will also be contested. Until then, a slim majority in both the House of Representatives and the Senate looks to be favorable for the renewable energy sector. 

The Biden administration’s proposed American Jobs Plan would eliminate tax benefits for fossil fuel companies, increase the corporate income tax, and promote renewable energy investment and jobs. How does an increase in the corporate tax rate create opportunities for renewable energy? If corporations have more tax liability they’ll be more likely to invest in projects that provide investment tax credits.  

Of particular interest to the team at Berry Dunn is the proposed ten-year extension and phase down of an expanded direct-pay investment tax credit (ITC) and production tax credit (PTC) for clean energy generation and storage. While details are sparse, direct-pay sure sounds a lot like the very successful 1603 grant program that was part of the 2009 stimulus package. Direct-pay eliminates a lot of the inefficiencies and tax hoops of the flip structure now often deployed to monetize the ITC. This allows developers to benefit directly instead of having to bring in tax equity investors. The inclusion of storage is welcome as it is now a part of most renewable energy projects and is critical in overcoming the non-intermittent power arguments that the fossil fuel industry uses to differentiate themselves from renewable energy companies. 

While there is a lot of negotiation and arm wrestling ahead to turn some or all of this into law, we encourage our renewable energy clients to line up projects and employees to be ready to pounce as this opportunity could be around for a short period. Hopefully the focus on American jobs and manufacturing will give it staying power, but don’t underestimate the political power of the fossil fuel industry. Now is the time.

The American Jobs Plan Fact Sheet

Below are some of the highlights from the fact sheet that pertain to renewable energy and clean electricity. You can read the full fact sheet posted on The White House's website here

  • Reenergize America’s power infrastructure. As the recent Texas power outages demonstrated, our aging electric grid needs urgent modernization. A DOE study found that power outages cost the U.S. economy up to $70 billion annually. The President’s plan will create a more resilient grid, lower energy bills for middle class Americans, improve air quality and public health outcomes, and create good jobs, with a choice to join a union, on the path to achieving 100 percent carbon-free electricity by 2035. President Biden is calling on Congress to invest $100 billion to:
  • Build a more resilient electric transmission system. Through investments in the grid, we can move cheaper, cleaner electricity to where it is needed most. This starts with the creation of a targeted investment tax credit that incentivizes the buildout of at least 20 gigawatts of high-voltage capacity power lines and mobilizes tens of billions in private capital off the sidelines right away. In addition, President Biden’s plan will establish a new Grid Deployment Authority at the Department of Energy that allows for better leverage of existing rights-of-way—along roads and railways—and supports creative financing tools to spur additional high priority, high-voltage transmission lines. These efforts will create good-paying jobs for union laborers, line workers, and electricians, in addition to creating demand for American-made building materials and parts.
  • Spur jobs modernizing power generation and delivering clean electricity. President Biden is proposing a ten-year extension and phase down of an expanded direct-pay investment tax credit and production tax credit for clean energy generation and storage. These credits will be paired with strong labor standards to ensure the jobs created are good-quality jobs with a free and fair choice to join a union and bargain collectively. President Biden’s plan will mobilize private investment to modernize our power sector. It also will support state, local, and tribal governments choosing to accelerate this modernization through complementary policies—like clean energy block grants that can be used to support clean energy, worker empowerment, and environmental justice. 

    President Biden will establish an Energy Efficiency and Clean Electricity Standard (EECES) aimed at cutting electricity bills and electricity pollution, increasing competition in the market, incentivizing more efficient use of existing infrastructure, and continuing to leverage the carbon pollution-free energy provided by existing sources like nuclear and hydropower. All of this will be done while moving toward 100 percent carbon-pollution free power by 2035.
  • Build next generation industries in distressed communities. President Biden believes that the market-based shift toward clean energy presents enormous opportunities for the development of new markets and new industries. Jumpstart clean energy manufacturing through federal procurement. The federal government spends more than a half-a-trillion dollars buying goods and services each year. This incredible purchasing power can be used to drive innovation and clean energy production. The President is calling on Congress to enable the manufacture of electric vehicles, charging ports, electric heat pumps, and clean materials, as well as critical technologies like advanced nuclear reactors and fuel, here at home through a $46 billion investment in federal buying power, creating good-paying jobs and reinvigorating local economies, especially in rural areas.
  • Create good jobs electrifying vehicles. The President is proposing a $174 billion investment to win the EV market. His plan will enable automakers to spur domestic supply chains from raw materials to parts, retool factories to compete globally, and support American workers to make batteries and EVs. 
Article
Now is the time: Renewable energy opportunities before mid-term elections

Read this if you are a community bank.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) recently issued its fourth quarter 2020 Quarterly Banking Profile. The report provides financial information based on call reports filed by 5,001 FDIC-insured commercial banks and savings institutions. The report also contains a section specific to community bank performance. In fourth quarter 2020, this includes the financial information of 4,559 FDIC-insured community banks. Here are our key takeaways from the community bank section of the report:

  • There was a $1.3 billion increase in quarterly net income from a year prior despite a 38.1% increase in provision expense and continued net interest margin (NIM) compression. This increase was mainly due to loan sales, which were up 159.2% from 2019. Year-over-year, net income is up 3.6%. However, the percentage of unprofitable community banks rose from 3.7% in 2019 to 4.4% in 2020.
  • Provision expense for the year increased $4.1 billion (a 141.6% increase) from 2019.
  • Year-over-year NIM declined 27 basis points to 3.39%. The average yield on earning assets fell 61 basis points to 4.00%.
  • Net operating revenue increased by $3.4 billion from fourth quarter 2019, a 14.5% increase. This increase is attributable to higher revenue from loan sales (increased $1.8 billion, or 159.2%) and an increase in net interest income.
  • Non-interest expenses increased 10.4% from fourth quarter 2019. This increase was mainly attributable to salary and benefit expenses, which saw an increase of $1.1 billion (12.6%). That being said, average assets per employee increased 16% from fourth quarter 2019.
  • Trends in loans and leases showed a moderate contraction from third quarter 2020, decreasing by 1.6%. This contraction was mainly seen in the C&I loan category, which was driven by a reduction in Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loan balances. However, total loans and leases increased by 10.3% from fourth quarter 2019. Although all major loan categories expanded in 2020, the majority of growth was seen in C&I loans, which accounted for approximately two-thirds of the year-over-year increase in loans and leases. However, keep in mind, C&I loans include PPP loans that were originated in the first half of 2020.
  • Nearly all community banks reported an increase in deposit volume during the year. Growth in deposits above the insurance limit drove the annual increase while alternative funding sources, such as brokered deposits, declined.
  • Average funding costs fell 33 basis points to 61 basis points for 2020.
  • Noncurrent loans (loans 90 days or more past due or in nonaccrual status) increased $1.5 billion (12.8%) from fourth quarter 2019 as noncurrent balances in all major loan categories grew. However, the noncurrent rate remained relatively stable compared to fourth quarter 2019 at 77 basis points, partly due to strong year-over-year loan growth.
  • Net charge-offs decreased 4 basis points from fourth quarter 2019 to 15 basis points. The net charge-off rate for C&I loans declined most among major loan categories having decreased 24 basis points.
  • The average community bank leverage ratio (CBLR) for the 1,844 banks that elected to use the CBLR framework was 11.2%.
  • The number of community banks declined by 31 to 4,559 from third quarter 2020. This change includes two new community banks, four banks transitioning from non-community to community banks, three banks transitioning from community to non-community banks, 30 community bank mergers or consolidations, two community bank self-liquidations, and two community bank failures.

2020 was a strong year for community banks, as evidenced by the increase in year-over-year net income of 3.6%. However, tightening NIMs will force community banks to either find creative ways to increase their NIM, grow their earning asset bases, or find ways to continue to increase non-interest income to maintain current net income levels. Some community banks have already started dedicating more time to non-traditional income streams, as evidenced by the 40.1% year-over-year increase in non-interest income.

Furthermore, much uncertainty still exists. For instance, although significant charge-offs have not yet materialized, the financial picture for many borrowers remains uncertain. And payment deferrals have made some credit quality indicators, such as past due status, less reliable. The ability of community banks to maintain relationships with their borrowers and remain apprised of the results of their borrowers’ operations has never been more important.

As always, please don’t hesitate to reach out to BerryDunn’s Financial Services team if you have any questions. We're here to help.
 

Article
FDIC issues its fourth quarter 2020 Quarterly Banking Profile

Read this if you are a business owner. 

Now that the Democrats have control of the Presidency, House of Representatives, and Senate, many in Washington, DC and around the country are asking “What is going to happen with business taxes?” 

While candidate Biden expressed interest in raising taxes on corporations and wealthy individuals, it is best to think of that as a framework for where the new administration intends to go, rather than a set-in-stone inevitability. We know his administration is likely to favor a paring back of some of the tax cuts made by the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA). Biden has indicated his administration may consider changes to the corporate tax rate, capital gains rate, individual income tax rates, and the estate and gift tax exemption amount.

Procedurally, it is unclear how tax legislation would be formulated under the Biden administration. A tax package could be included as part of another COVID-19 relief bill. The TCJA could be modified, repealed, or replaced. It is also unclear how any package would proceed through Congress. Under current Senate rules, the legislative filibuster can limit the Senate’s ability to pass standalone tax legislation, thus leaving any such legislation to the budget reconciliation process, as was the case in 2017. It also remains unclear if the two parties will come together to work on any bill. Finally, it will be important to note who fills key Treasury tax positions in the Biden administration, as these individuals will have a strategic role in the development of administration priorities and the negotiation with Congress of any tax bill. Here are three ways tax changes could take shape:

  1. Part of a COVID-19 relief package
    With the Biden administration eager to provide immediate relief to individuals and small- and medium-sized businesses affected by the coronavirus pandemic, some tax changes could be included as part of an additional relief bill on which the administration is likely to seek bipartisan support. Such changes could take the form of tax cuts for some businesses and individuals, tax credits, expanded retirement contributions, and/or other measures. If attached to a COVID-19 relief bill, these changes would likely go into effect immediately and would provide rapid relief to businesses and individuals that have been particularly hard hit during the pandemic and economic downturn.
  2. Repeal and replace TCJA
    Another possibility is for Biden to pursue a full rollback of the TCJA and replace it with his own tax bill. This would be a challenge since the Democrats only have a slim majority in the Senate, meaning that Republicans could filibuster the bill unless Senate Democrats take steps to repeal the filibuster.

    Given that the Biden administration’s immediate priorities will be delivering financial assistance to individuals and businesses, ensuring the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines, and flattening the curve of cases, a repeal and replacement of the TCJA might not be voted on until at least late 2021 and likely would not go into effect until 2022 at the earliest.
  3. Pare back or modify the TCJA
    An overall theme of Biden’s campaign was not sweeping, radical change but making incremental shifts that he views as improvements. This theme may come into play in Biden’s approach to tax legislation. He may choose not to repeal the TCJA completely (prompting a return to 2016 taxation levels), but instead pare back some of the tax changes enacted in 2017. In practice, this could mean raising the corporate tax rate by a few percentage points, which could garner bipartisan support. Again, this likely would not be a legislative priority until after the country has passed through the worst of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Factors that will influence potential tax changes

Senate legislative filibuster

Currently, the minority party in the Senate can delay a vote on an issue if fewer than 60 senators support bringing a measure to a vote. Thus, Republicans would be likely to filibuster any bill that contains more ambitious tax rate increases. The uptick in the use of the filibuster in recent decades is perhaps a symptom of congressional deadlock, and there are calls from many Democrats to eliminate the filibuster in order to pass more ambitious legislation without bipartisan support (in fact, in recent years, the filibuster has been removed for appointments and confirmations). While President Biden and Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer may be open to ending or further limiting the filibuster, every Democratic senator would have to agree. West Virginia Senator Joe Manchin has said repeatedly that he will not vote to end the legislative filibuster.

If the filibuster remains in place as it appears it will, tax legislation would likely be passed as part of the budget reconciliation process, which only requires a simple majority to pass. However, the tradeoff is that any changes generally would have to expire at the end of the budget window, which typically is 10 years. This is how both the 2001 Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act and the TCJA were passed.

Appetite for bipartisanship

President Biden has signaled that he wants to work for all Americans and seek to heal the partisan divides in the country. He may be looking to reach across the aisle on certain legislation and seek bipartisan support, even if such support is not necessary to pass a bill. Biden stated during his campaign that he wants to increase the corporate tax rate—not to the 2017 rate of 35%—but to 28%. Achieving this middle ground rate might be viewed as a compromise approach.

As the new government takes office, it remains to be seen how much bipartisanship is desired, or even possible.

What this may mean for your business

It is important to note that sweeping tax changes probably are not an immediate priority for the incoming Biden administration. The new administration’s immediate focus likely will be on addressing the current fragmented approach to COVID-19 vaccinations, accelerating the distribution of the vaccines, taking steps to bring the spread of COVID-19 under control, and providing much needed economic relief. As noted above, there could be some tax changes and impacts resulting from future COVID-19 relief bills.

Those will be the bills to watch for any early tax changes, including cuts or credits, that businesses may be able to take advantage of. Larger scale tax changes, particularly any tax increases, may not go into effect until 2022 at the earliest. Here are some of the current rules and how Biden is proposing to deal with them.

If you have questions about your particular situation, please contact our team. We’re here to help. 

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Biden's tax plan: Tax reform details remain unclear

Read this if you are a New Hampshire resident, or a business owner or manager with telecommuting employees (due to the COVID-19 pandemic).

In late January, the Supreme Court asked the Biden Administration for its views on a not-so-friendly neighborly dispute between the State of New Hampshire and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. New Hampshire is famous amongst its neighboring states for its lack of sales tax and personal income tax. Because of the tax rules and other alluring features, thousands of employees commute daily from New Hampshire to Massachusetts. Overnight, like so many of us, those commuters were working at home and not crossing state boundaries.

As a result of the pandemic and stay-at-home orders, Massachusetts issued temporary and early guidance, directing employers to maintain the status quo. Keep withholding on your employees in the same manner that you were, even though they may not be physically coming into the state. New Hampshire was against this directive from day one, but the nail in the coffin was an extension of the guidance in October. Within days, New Hampshire filed suit in the Supreme Court.

New Hampshire’s position

In its brief, New Hampshire asserts that the Massachusetts regulations are unconstitutional—in violation of the both the Commerce and Due Process Clauses of the U.S. Constitution. Each clause has historically prohibited a state from taxing outside its borders and limits tax on non-residents. For Massachusetts employers to continue withholding on New Hampshire resident’s wage earnings, New Hampshire argues, Massachusetts is imposing a tax within New Hampshire, contrary to the Constitution. 

What makes the New Hampshire situation unique is that it does not impose an income tax on individuals, a “defining feature of its sovereignty”, the state argues. New Hampshire would say that its tax regime creates a competitive advantage in attracting new business and residents. Maine residents, subject to the same Massachusetts rules, would receive a corresponding tax credit on their Maine tax return, making them close to whole between the two states. Because there is no New Hampshire individual income tax, their residents are out of pocket for a tax that they wouldn’t be subject to, but for these regulations. 

Massachusetts’ position

Massachusetts' intention behind the temporary regulations was to maintain pre-pandemic status quo to avoid uncertainty for employees and additional compliance burden on employers. This would ensure employers would not be responsible for determining when an employee was working, for example, at their Lake Winnipesaukee camp for a few weeks, or their relative’s home in Rhode Island. 

Additionally, states like New York and Connecticut have long had “convenience of the employer” laws on the books which imposed New York tax on telecommuting non-residents. Additionally, Massachusetts provided that a parallel treatment will be given to resident employees with income tax liabilities in other states who have adopted similar sourcing rules, i.e., a Massachusetts resident working for a Maine employer.

Other voices

The U.S. Supreme Court has requested a brief from the Biden administration with no deadline given. It’s assumed, however, to be received in time for the court to makes its decision before the end of term in June. Since the original filing, the States of New Jersey, Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, and others have filed briefs, imploring the Court to hear the case due to similar circumstances in their states and the wide ranging precedent Massachusetts and others may be effectuating. Additionally, Pennsylvania and others have released their own status quo guidance, following Massachusetts.

What now?

Right now, it’s wait and see what the Supreme Court decides. For Massachusetts employers specifically, you should review current withholdings and ensure compliance with the temporary regulations. The regulations for non-resident wages and withholding are in effect until 90 days after the state of emergency has lifted. Given that that date keeps moving further away, the rules may still be in effect when the Supreme Court delivers their decision in June. For all employers, it’s important that you review the rules in each state of operation and confirm that the proper withholding is made. 

Unwinding from the pandemic is going to be a long road, regardless of what decision the Supreme Court makes. If New Hampshire prevails, it’ll be a long compliance burden for both employers and employees to unwind the withholding and receive refunds. If Massachusetts wins, employers that weren’t following the regulations will have a costly tax exposure to correct.  

If you have questions about your specific situation, please contact us. We’re here to help.

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New Hampshire v. Massachusetts: Sovereignty or status quo?

Read this if you are at a rural health clinic or are considering developing one.

Section 130 of H.R. 133, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021 (Covid Relief Package) has become law. The law includes the most comprehensive reforms of the Medicare RHC payment methodology since the mid-1990s. Aimed at providing a payment increase to capped RHCs (freestanding and provider-based RHCs attached to hospitals greater than 50 beds), the provisions will simultaneously narrow the payment gap between capped and non-capped RHCs.

This will not obtain full “site neutrality” in payment, a goal of CMS and the Trump administration, but the new provisions will help maintain budget neutrality with savings derived from previously uncapped RHCs funding the increase to capped providers and other Medicare payment mechanisms.

Highlights of the Section 130 provision:

  • The limit paid to freestanding RHCs and those attached to hospitals greater than 50 beds will increase to $100 beginning April 1, 2021 and escalate to $190 by 2028.
  • Any RHC, both freestanding and provider-based, will be deemed “new” if certified after 12/31/19 and subject to the new per-visit cap.
  • Grandfathering would be in place for uncapped provider-based RHCs in existence as of 12/31/19. These providers would receive their current All-Inclusive Rate (AIR) adjusted annually for MEI (Medicare Economic Index) or their actual costs for the year.

If you have any questions about your specific situation, please contact us. We’re here to help.

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Section 130 Rural Health Clinic (RHC) modernization: Highlights

The COVID-19 emergency has caused CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) to expand eligibility for expedited payments to Medicare providers and suppliers for the duration of the public health emergency.

Accelerated payments have been available to providers/suppliers in the past due to a disruption in claims submission or claims processing, mainly due to natural disasters. Because of the COVID-19 public health emergency, CMS has expanded the accelerated payment program to provide necessary funds to eligible providers/suppliers who submit a request to their Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) and meet the required qualifications.

Eligibility requirements―Providers/suppliers who:

  1. Have billed Medicare for claims within 180 days immediately prior to the date of signature on the provider’s/supplier’s request form,
  2. Are not in bankruptcy,
  3. Are not under active medical review or program integrity investigation, and
  4. Do not have any outstanding delinquent Medicare overpayments.

Amount of payment:
Eligible providers/suppliers will request a specific amount for an accelerated payment. Most providers can request up to 100% of the Medicare payment amount for a three-month period. Inpatient acute care hospitals and certain other hospitals can request up to 100% of the Medicare payment amount for a six-month period. Critical access hospitals (CAHs) can request up to 125% of the Medicare payment for a six-month period.

Processing time:
CMS has indicated that MACs will work to review and issue payment within seven calendar days of receiving the request.

Repayment, recoupment, and reconciliation:
The December 2020 Bipartisan-Bicameral Omnibus COVID Relief Deal revised the repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline on the Medicare Advanced and Accelerated Payment Program as identified below. 

Hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline 
Original Timeline 
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
120 days  No payments due 
121 - 365 days  Medicare claims reduced by 100% 
> 365 days provider may repay any balance due or be subject to an ~9.5% interest rate      Recoupment period ends - repayment of outstanding balance due 

Hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline 
Updated Timeline
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
1 year  No payments due 
11 months  Medicare claims reduced by 25% 
6 months  Medicare claims reduced by 50% 
> 29 months provider may repay any balance due or be subject to a 4% interest rate  Recoupment period ends - repayment of outstanding balance due 

Non-hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline
Original Timeline 
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
120 days  No payments due 
121 - 210 days Medicare claims reduced by 100% 
> 210 days provider may repay any balance due or be subject to an ~9.5% interest rate Recoupment period ends - repayment of outstanding balance due 

Non-hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline
Updated Timeline 
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
1 year No payments due 
11 months  Medicare claims reduced by 25% 
6 months Medicare claims reduced by 50% 
> 29 months provider may repay any balance due or be subject to a 4% interest rate  Recoupment period ends - outstanding balance due 

Application:
Applications for accelerated payments can be found on each MACs' website. CMS has established COVID-19 hotlines at each MAC that are operational Monday through Friday to assist providers with accelerated or advance payment concerns. Access your designated MACs' website here.

The MAC will review the application to ensure the eligibility requirements are met. The provider/supplier will be notified of approval or denial by mail or email. If the request is approved, the MAC will issue the accelerated payment within seven calendar days from the request.

When funding is approved, the requested amount is compared to a database with amounts calculated by Medicare and provides funding at the lessor of the two amounts. The current form allows the provider to request the maximum payment amount as calculated by CMS or a lesser specified amount.

We are here to help
If you have questions or need more information about your specific situation, please contact the healthcare consulting team. We’re here to help.

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Medicare Accelerated Payment Program