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Sales & use tax: A potential trap for
non-U
.S. entities

12.06.18

A common pitfall for inbound sellers is applying the same concepts used to adopt “no tax” positions made for federal income tax purposes to determinations concerning sales and use tax compliance. Although similar conceptually, separate analyses are required for each determination.

For federal income tax purposes, inbound sellers that are selling goods to customers in the U.S. and do not have a fixed place of business or dependent agent in the U.S. have, traditionally, been able to rely on their country’s income tax treaty with the U.S. for “no tax” positions. Provided that the non-U.S. entity did not have a “permanent establishment” in the U.S., it was shielded from federal income tax and would have a limited federal income tax compliance obligation.

States, however, are generally not bound by comprehensive income tax treaties made with the U.S. Thus, non-U.S. entities can find themselves unwittingly subject to state and local sales and use tax compliance obligations even though they are protected from a federal income tax perspective. With recent changes in U.S. tax law, the burden of complying with sales and use tax filing and collection requirements has increased significantly.

Does your company have a process in place to deal with these new state and local tax compliance obligations?

What has changed? Wayfair—it’s got what a state needs

As a result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc., non-U.S. entities that have sales to customers in the U.S. may have unexpected sales and use tax filing obligations on a go-forward basis. Historically, non-U.S. entities did not have a sales and use tax compliance obligation when they did not have a physical presence in states where the sales occurred.

In Wayfair, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a state is no longer bound by the physical presence standard in order for it to impose its sales and use tax regime on entities making sales within the state. The prior physical presence standard was set forth in precedent established by the Supreme Court and was used to determine if an entity had sufficient connection with a state (i.e., nexus) to necessitate a tax filing and collection requirement.

Before the Wayfair ruling, an entity had to have a physical presence (generally either through employees or property located in a state) in order to be deemed to have nexus with the state. The Wayfair ruling overturned this precedent, eliminating the physical presence requirement. Now, a state can deem an entity to have nexus with the state merely for exceeding a certain level of sales or transactions with in-state customers. This is a concept referred to as “economic nexus.”

The Court in Wayfair determined that the state law in South Dakota providing a threshold of $100,000 in sales or more than 200 sale transactions occurring within the state is sufficient for economic nexus to exist with the state. This is good news for hard-pressed states and municipalities in search of more revenue. Since this ruling, there has been a flurry of new state legislation across the country. Like South Dakota, states are actively passing tax laws with similar bright-line tests to determine when entities have economic nexus and, therefore, a sales and use tax collection and filing requirement.

How this impacts non-U.S. entities

This can be a trap for non-U.S. entities making sales to customers in the U.S. Historically, non-U.S. entities lacking a U.S. physical presence generally only needed to navigate federal income tax rules.

Inbound sellers without a physical presence in the U.S. may have very limited experience with state and local tax compliance obligations. When considering all of the state and local tax jurisdictions that exist in the U.S. (according to the Tax Foundation there are more than 10,000 sales tax jurisdictions), the number of sales and use tax filing obligations can be significant. Depending on the level of sales activity within the U.S., a non-U.S. entity can quickly become inundated with the time and cost of sales and use tax compliance.

Next steps

Going forward, non-U.S. entities selling to customers in the U.S. should be aware of those states that have economic nexus thresholds and adopt procedures so they are prepared for their sales and use tax compliance obligations in real time. These tax compliance obligations will generally require an entity to register to do business in the state, collect sales tax from customers, and file regular tax returns, usually monthly or quarterly.

It is important to note when an entity has an obligation to collect sales tax, it will be liable for any sales tax due to a state, regardless of whether the sales tax is actually collected from the customer. It is imperative to stay abreast of these complex legislative changes in order to be compliant.

At BerryDunn, our tax professionals work with a number of non-U.S. companies that face international, state, and local tax issues. If you would like to discuss your particular circumstances, contact one of the experienced professionals in our state and local tax (“SALT”) practice.

Read this if you are a business owner or interested in upcoming changes to current tax law.

As Joe Biden prepares to be inaugurated as the 46th President of the United States, and Congress is now controlled by Democrats, his tax policy takes center stage.

Although the Democrats hold the presidency and both houses of Congress for the next two years, any changes in tax law may still have to be passed through budget reconciliation, because 60 votes in the Senate generally are needed to avoid that process. Both in 2017 and 2001, passing tax legislation through reconciliation meant that most of the changes were not permanent; that is, they expired within the 10-year budget window. Here is a comparison of current tax law with Biden’s proposed tax plan.

Current Tax Law
(TCJA–present)
Biden’s stated goals
Corporate tax rates and AMT

Corporations have a flat 21% tax rate and no corporate alternative minimum tax (AMT), which were both changed by the TCJA.

These do not expire.

Biden would raise the flat rate to the pre-TCJA level of 28% and reinstate the corporate AMT, requiring corporations to pay the greater of their regular corporate income tax or the 15% minimum tax (while still allowing for net operating loss (NOL) and foreign tax credits).

Capital gains and Qualified Dividend Income

The top tax rate is 20% for income over $441,450 for individuals and $496,600 for married filing jointly. There is an additional 3.8% net investment income tax.

Biden would eliminate breaks for long-term capital gains and dividends for income above $1 million. Instead, these would be taxed at ordinary rates.

Payroll taxes

The 12.4% payroll tax is divided evenly between employers and employees and applies to the first $137,700 of an individual’s income (scheduled to go up to $142,400 in 2020). There is also a 2.9% Medicare Tax which is split equally between the employer and the employee with no income limit.

Biden would maintain the 12.4% tax split between employers and employees and keep the $142,400 cap but would institute the tax on earned income above $400,000. The gap between the two wage levels would gradually close with annual inflationary increases.

International taxes (GILTI, offshoring)

GILTI (Global Intangible Low-Tax Income): Established by the TCJA, U.S. multinationals are required to pay a foreign tax rate of between 10.5% and 13.125%.

A scheduled increase in the effective rate to 16.406% is scheduled to begin in 2026.

Offshoring taxes: The TCJA includes a tax deduction for corporations that manufacture in the U.S. and sell overseas.

GILTI: Biden would double the tax rate to 21% and assess a minimum tax on a country-by-country basis.

Offshoring taxes: Biden would establish a 10% penalty surtax on profits for goods and services manufactured offshore and a 10% advanceable “Made in America” tax credit to create U.S. manufacturing jobs. Biden would also close offshoring tax loopholes in the TCJA.

Estate taxes

The estate tax exemption for 2020 is $11,580,000. Transfers of appreciated property at death get a step-up in basis.

The exemption is scheduled to revert to pre-TCJA levels.

Biden would return the estate tax to 2009 levels, eliminate the current step-up in basis on inherited assets, and eliminate the step-up at death provision for inherited property passed along by the decedent.

Individual tax rates

The top marginal rate is 37% for income over $518,400 for individuals and $622,050 for married filing jointly. This was lowered from 39.6% pre-TCJA.

Biden would restore the 39.6% rate for taxable income above $400,000. This represents only the top rate.

Individual tax credits

Currently, individuals can claim a maximum of $2,000 Child Tax Credit (CTC) plus a $500 dependent credit.

Individuals may claim a maximum dependent care credit of $600 ($1,200 for two or more children).

The CTC is scheduled to revert to pre-TCJA levels ($1,000) after 2025.

Biden would expand the CTC to $3,000 for children age 17 and under and offer a $600 bonus for children age 6 and under. It would also be fully refundable.

He has also proposed increasing the child and dependent care tax credit to $8,000 ($16,000 for two or more children), and he has proposed a new tax credit of up to $5,000 for informal caregivers.

Separately, Biden has also proposed a $15,000 tax credit for first-time homebuyers.

Qualified Business Income Deduction under Section 199A

As previously discussed, many businesses qualify for a 20% qualified business income tax deduction lowering the effective rate of tax for S corporation shareholders and partners in partnerships to 29.6% for qualifying businesses.

Biden would phase out the tax benefits associated with the qualified business income deduction for those making more than $400,000 annually.

Education

Forgiven student loan debt is included in taxable income.

There is no tax credit for contributions to state-authorized organizations that sponsor scholarships.

Biden would exclude forgiven student loan debt from taxable income.

Small businesses

There are current tax credits for some of the costs to start a retirement plan.

Biden would offer tax credits for businesses that adopt a retirement savings plan and offer most workers without a pension or 401(k) access to an “automatic 401(k)”.

Itemized deductions

For 2020, the standard deduction is $12,400 for single/married filing separately and $24,800 for married filing jointly.

After 2025, the standard deduction is scheduled to revert to pre-TCJA amounts, or $6,350 for single /married filing separately and $12,700 for married filing jointly.

The TCJA suspended the personal exemption and most individual deductions through 2025.

It also capped the SALT deduction at $10,000, which will remain in place until 2025, unless repealed.

Biden would enact a provision that would cap the tax benefit of itemized deductions at 28%.

SALT cap: Senate minority leader Charles Schumer has pledged to repeal the cap should Biden win in November (the House of Representatives has already passed legislation to repeal the SALT cap).

Opportunity Zones

Biden has proposed incentivizing - opportunity zone funds to partner with community organizations and have the Treasury Department review the program’s regulations of the tax incentives. He would also increase reporting and public disclosure requirements.
Alternative energy Biden would expand renewable energy tax credits and credits for residential energy efficiency and restore the Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) and the Electric Vehicle Tax Credit.


If you have questions about your specific situation, please contact us. We’re here to help.

Article
Biden's tax plan and what may change from current tax law

Read this if you are a renewable energy company, investor, or related business.

Maine recently released a Climate Action Plan to address Maine’s climate future. Titled Maine Won’t Wait, the extensive plan tapped experts from across industries and professions to create a comprehensive blueprint for Maine’s climate future. BerryDunn is one of many Maine businesses to sign on in support of the plan, and will endeavor to help make it become a reality in the years, and decades to come. The far-reaching, ambitious plan covers many areas to address climate change, and renewable energy takes center stage. 

From the plan: In June 2019, Governor Janet Mills signed LD 1679 into law, with strong support from the Maine Legislature, to create the Maine Climate Council. The Council—an assembly of scientists, industry leaders, bipartisan local and state officials, and engaged citizens—was charged with developing this four-year Climate Action Plan to put Maine on a trajectory to decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 45% by 2030 and 80% by 2050, and achieve carbon neutrality by 2045.

Highlighted strategies of Maine's Climate Action Plan include:

  • Embrace the future of transportation in Maine 
  • Modernize Maine’s buildings: Energy-efficient, smart and cost-effective homes and businesses
  • Reduce carbon emissions in Maine’s energy and industrial sectors through clean energy
  • Grow Maine’s clean-energy economy and protect our natural resource industries 

Renewable energy opportunities

These strategies provide many opportunities for renewable energy companies to grow their businesses, increase the renewable workforce in Maine, and have a major impact on the success of Maine’s climate future. The plan also states that Maine will: 

  • Achieve an electricity grid where 80% of Maine’s usage comes from renewable generation by 2030
  • Launch a workforce initiative by 2022 that establishes ongoing stakeholder coordination between industry, educational, and training organizations to support current and future workforce needs
  • Establish programs and partnerships by 2022 for clean-tech innovation support to encourage the creation of clean-energy and climate solutions
  • More than double the number of Maine’s clean-energy and energy-efficiency jobs by 2030 

The plan recommends that Maine commit to increasing its current clean-energy workforce, while establishing new supply chains for Maine-based manufacturers to create sustained, good-paying skilled-labor jobs across the state.

As Maine heads toward a cleaner energy future, the plan sets up strong opportunities for renewable companies to play a large role in creating a sustainable renewable energy economy. You can read the full plan here. If you have any questions about the potential for your renewable energy business, contact the team. We’re here to help.

Article
Maine's Climate Action Plan unveiled: Renewable energy to play a big role

Read this if you are at a rural health clinic or are considering developing one.

Section 130 of H.R. 133, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021 (Covid Relief Package) has become law. The law includes the most comprehensive reforms of the Medicare RHC payment methodology since the mid-1990s. Aimed at providing a payment increase to capped RHCs (freestanding and provider-based RHCs attached to hospitals greater than 50 beds), the provisions will simultaneously narrow the payment gap between capped and non-capped RHCs.

This will not obtain full “site neutrality” in payment, a goal of CMS and the Trump administration, but the new provisions will help maintain budget neutrality with savings derived from previously uncapped RHCs funding the increase to capped providers and other Medicare payment mechanisms.

Highlights of the Section 130 provision:

  • The limit paid to freestanding RHCs and those attached to hospitals greater than 50 beds will increase to $100 beginning April 1, 2021 and escalate to $190 by 2028.
  • Any RHC, both freestanding and provider-based, will be deemed “new” if certified after 12/31/19 and subject to the new per-visit cap.
  • Grandfathering would be in place for uncapped provider-based RHCs in existence as of 12/31/19. These providers would receive their current All-Inclusive Rate (AIR) adjusted annually for MEI (Medicare Economic Index) or their actual costs for the year.

If you have any questions about your specific situation, please contact us. We’re here to help.

Article
Section 130 Rural Health Clinic (RHC) modernization: Highlights

The COVID-19 emergency has caused CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) to expand eligibility for expedited payments to Medicare providers and suppliers for the duration of the public health emergency.

Accelerated payments have been available to providers/suppliers in the past due to a disruption in claims submission or claims processing, mainly due to natural disasters. Because of the COVID-19 public health emergency, CMS has expanded the accelerated payment program to provide necessary funds to eligible providers/suppliers who submit a request to their Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) and meet the required qualifications.

Eligibility requirements―Providers/suppliers who:

  1. Have billed Medicare for claims within 180 days immediately prior to the date of signature on the provider’s/supplier’s request form,
  2. Are not in bankruptcy,
  3. Are not under active medical review or program integrity investigation, and
  4. Do not have any outstanding delinquent Medicare overpayments.

Amount of payment:
Eligible providers/suppliers will request a specific amount for an accelerated payment. Most providers can request up to 100% of the Medicare payment amount for a three-month period. Inpatient acute care hospitals and certain other hospitals can request up to 100% of the Medicare payment amount for a six-month period. Critical access hospitals (CAHs) can request up to 125% of the Medicare payment for a six-month period.

Processing time:
CMS has indicated that MACs will work to review and issue payment within seven calendar days of receiving the request.

Repayment, recoupment, and reconciliation:
The December 2020 Bipartisan-Bicameral Omnibus COVID Relief Deal revised the repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline on the Medicare Advanced and Accelerated Payment Program as identified below. 

Hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline 
Original Timeline 
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
120 days  No payments due 
121 - 365 days  Medicare claims reduced by 100% 
> 365 days provider may repay any balance due or be subject to an ~9.5% interest rate      Recoupment period ends - repayment of outstanding balance due 

Hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline 
Updated Timeline
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
1 year  No payments due 
11 months  Medicare claims reduced by 25% 
6 months  Medicare claims reduced by 50% 
> 29 months provider may repay any balance due or be subject to an 4% interest rate  Recoupment period ends - repayment of outstanding balance due 

Non-hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline
Original Timeline 
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
120 days  No payments due 
121 - 210 days Medicare claims reduced by 100% 
> 210 days provider may repay any balance due or be subject to an ~9.5% interest rate Recoupment period ends - repayment of outstanding balance due 

Non-hospitals repayment, recoupment and reconciliation timeline
Updated Timeline 
Time from date of payment receipt  Recoupment & Repayment
1 year No payments due 
11 months  Medicare claims reduced by 25% 
6 months Medicare claims reduced by 50% 
> 29 months provider may repay any balance due or be subject to an 4% interest rate  Recoupment period ends - outstanding balance due 

Application:
The MAC for Jurisdiction 6 and Jurisdiction K is NGS (National Government Services). The NGS application for accelerated payment can be found here.

The NGS Hotline telephone number is 1.888.802.3898. Per NGSMedicare.com, representatives are available Monday through Friday during regular business hours.

The MAC will review the application to ensure the eligibility requirements are met. The provider/supplier will be notified of approval or denial by mail or email. If the request is approved, the MAC will issue the accelerated payment within seven calendar days from the request.

Tips for filing the Request for Accelerated/Advance Payment:
The key to determining whether a provider should apply under Part A or Part B is the Medicare Identification number. For hospitals, the majority of funding would originate under Part A based on the CMS Certification Number (CCN) also known as the Provider Transaction Access Number (PTAN). As an example, Maine hospitals have CCN / PTAN numbers that use the following numbering convention "20-XXXX". Part B requests would originate when the provider differs from this convention. In short, everything reported on a cost report or Provider Statistical and Reimbursement report  (PS&R) would fall under Part A for the purpose of this funding. 
 
When funding is approved, the requested amount is compared to a database with amounts calculated by Medicare and provides funding at the lessor of the two amounts. The current form allows the provider to request the maximum payment amount as calculated by CMS or a lesser specified amount.
 
A representative from National Government Services indicated the preference was to receive one request for Part A per hospital. The form provides for attachment of a listing of multiple PTAN and NPI numbers that fall under the organization.

Interest after recoupment period:
On Monday, April 6, 2020, the American Hospital Association (AHA) wrote a letter to the Department of Health and Human Services and CMS requesting the interest rate applied to the repayment of the accelerated/advanced payments be waived or substantially reduced. AHA received clarification from CMS that any remaining balance at the end of the recoupment period is subject to interest. Currently that interest rate is set at 10.25% or the “prevailing rate set by the Treasury Department”. Without relief from CMS, interest will accrue as of the 31st day after the hospital has received a demand letter for the repayment of the remaining balance. The hospital does have 30 days to pay the balance without incurring interest.  

We are here to help
If you have questions or need more information about your specific situation, please contact the hospital consulting team. We’re here to help.

Article
Medicare Accelerated Payment Program

Read this if you work at a renewable energy company, developer, or other related business. 

When entering into agreements involving tangible long-lived assets, an asset retirement obligation can arise in the form of a legal obligation to retire the asset(s) at a certain date. In the alternative/renewable energy industry, these frequently present themselves in leases for property on which equipment (i.e., solar panels) is placed. In the leases there may be a requirement, for example, that at the conclusion of the lease, the lessee remove the equipment and return to the property to its original condition.

When an asset retirement obligation is present in a contract, a company should record the liability when it has been incurred (usually in the same period the asset is installed or placed in service) and can be reasonably estimated. The fair value of the liability, typically calculated using a present value technique, is recorded along with a corresponding increase to the basis of the asset to be retired. Subsequent to the initial recognition, the liability is accreted annually up to its future value, and the asset, including the increase for the asset retirement obligation, is depreciated over its useful life.

As a company gets closer to the date the obligation is realized, the estimate of the obligation will most likely become more accurate. When revisions to the estimate are determined, the liability should be adjusted in that period.

It is important to note that this accounting does not have any income tax implications, including any potential increase to the investment tax credit (ITC).

These obligations are estimates and should be developed by your management through collaboration with companies or individuals that have performed similar projects and have insight as to the expected cost. While this is an estimate and not a perfect science, it is important information to share with investors and work into cash flow models for the project, as the cost of removing such equipment can be significant. 

Recording the liability on the balance sheet is a good reminder of the approximate cash outflow that will take place in the final year of the lease. If you have any questions or would like to discuss with us, contact a member of the renewable energy team. We’re here to help.

Article
Asset retirement obligations in alternative/renewable energy

Read this if your company is seeking guidance on PPP loans.

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (H.R. 133) was signed into law on December 27, 2020. This bill contains guidance on the existing Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) and guidelines for the next round of PPP funding.

Updates on existing PPP loans

Income and expense treatment of PPP loans. Forgiven PPP loans will not be included in taxable income and eligible expenses paid with PPP funds will be tax-deductible. This tax treatment applies to both current and future PPP loans.

Tax attributes and basis adjustments. Tax attributes such as net operating losses and passive loss carryovers, and basis increases generated from the result of the PPP loans will not be reduced if the loans are forgiven.

Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL). Any previous or future EIDL advance will not reduce PPP loan forgiveness. Any borrowers who already received forgiveness of their PPP loans and had their EIDL subtracted from the forgiveness amount will be able to file an amended forgiveness application to have their PPP forgiveness amount increased by the amount of the EIDL advance. The SBA has 15 days from the effective date of this bill to produce an amended forgiveness application. 

Simplified forgiveness application for loans under $150,000. Borrowers who received PPP loans for $150,000 or less will now be able to file a simplified one-page forgiveness application and will not be required to submit documentation with the application. The SBA has 24 days from the effective date of this bill to make this new forgiveness application available. 

Use of PPP funds. Congress expanded the types of expenses that may be paid with PPP funds. Prior eligible expenses were limited to payroll (including health benefits), rent, covered mortgage interest, and utilities. Additional expenses now include software and cloud computing services to support business operations, the purchase of essential goods from suppliers, and expenditures for complying with government guidance relating to COVID-19.

These additional expenses apply to both existing and new PPP loans, but they do not apply to existing loans if forgiveness has already been obtained.
 
In addition, the definition of "payroll costs" has been expanded to include costs for group life, disability, dental, and vision insurance. These additions also apply to both existing and new loans.

Information for new PPP loans

Application deadline. March 31, 2021 

Eligibility for first-time borrowers. A business that did not previously apply for or receive a PPP loan may apply for a new loan. The same requirements apply from the first round of loans. The business must employ fewer than 500 employees per physical location and the borrower must certify the loan is necessary due to economic uncertainty.

Eligibility for second-time borrowers. Businesses that received a prior PPP loan may apply for a second loan, however the eligibility requirements are a little more stringent. The business must have fewer than 300 employees per physical location (down from 500 previously) and it must have experienced a decline in gross revenue of at least 25% in any quarter in 2020 as compared to the same quarter in 2019. The business must have also expended (or will expend) their initial PPP loan proceeds. 

Maximum loan amount. Lesser of $2 million or 2.5x average monthly payroll for either calendar 2019 or the 12-month period prior to the date of the loan. Businesses operating in the accommodations and food service industry (NAICS code 72) can use a 3.5x average monthly payroll multiple. If the business previously received a loan less than the new amount allowed, or if it returned a portion or all of the previous loan, it can apply for additional funds up to the maximum loan amount. 

New types of businesses eligible for loans.

  • Broadcast news stations, radio stations, and newspapers that will use the proceeds to support the production and distribution of local and emergency information 
  • Certain 501(c)(6) organizations with fewer than 300 employees and that are not significantly involved in lobbying activities 
  • Housing cooperatives with fewer than 300 employees 
  • Companies in bankruptcy if the bankruptcy court approves

Ineligible businesses. A business that was ineligible to receive a PPP loan during the first round is still ineligible to receive a loan in the new round. The new legislation also prohibits the following businesses from receiving a loan in the second round:

  • Publicly traded companies 
  • Businesses owned 20% or more by a Chinese or Hong Kong entity or have a resident of China on its board 
  • Businesses engaged primarily in political or lobbying activities
  • Businesses required to register under the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
  • Businesses not in operation on February 15, 2020 

Forgiveness qualifications. New PPP loans will be eligible for forgiveness if at least 60% of the proceeds are used on payroll costs. Partial forgiveness will still be available if less than 60% of the funds are used on payroll costs. 

Covered period. The borrower may choose a covered period (i.e., the amount of time in which the PPP funds must be spent) between 8 and 24 weeks from the date of the loan disbursement.

Employee Retention Tax Credit. The CARES Act prohibited a business from claiming the Employee Retention Tax Credit if they received a PPP loan. The new legislation retroactively repeals that prohibition, although it is unclear how an employer can claim retroactive relief. The new bill also expands the tax credit for 2021. 

Additional guidance is expected from the SBA in the coming weeks on many of these items and we will provide updates when the information is released.

We’re here to help.
If you have questions about PPP loans, contact a BerryDunn professional.

Article
Paycheck Protection Program: Updates on new and existing loans

Read this if you are a community bank.

On December 1, 2020, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) issued its third quarter 2020 Quarterly Banking Profile. The report provides financial information based on call reports filed by 5,033 FDIC-insured commercial banks and savings institutions. The report also contains a section specific to community-bank performance based on the financial information of 4,590 FDIC-insured community banks. Here are some highlights from the community bank section of the report:

  • The community bank sector experienced a $659.7 million increase in quarterly net income from a year prior, despite a 116.6% increase in provision expense and continued net interest margin (NIM) compression. This increase was mainly due to loan sales, which were up 154.2% from 2019. Year-over-year, net income increased 10%.
  • Provision expense decreased 32.3% from second quarter 2020 to $1.6 billion. That said, year-to-date provision expense increased 194.3% compared to 2019 year-to-date.
  • NIM declined 41 basis points from a year prior to a record low of 3.27% (on an annualized basis). 
  • Net operating revenue increased by $2.8 billion from third quarter 2019, a 12.1% increase. This increase was attributable to higher revenue from loan sales and an increase in net interest income mainly due to higher interest income from commercial and industrial (C&I) loans (up 14.8%) and a decrease in interest expense (down 36.8%).
  • Average funding costs declined for the fourth consecutive quarter to 0.53%.
  • Growth in total loans and leases was stagnant from second quarter 2020, growing by only 1%. However, total loans and leases increased by 13.4% from third quarter 2019. This increase was mainly due to C&I lending, which was up 71%. This growth in C&I lending was mainly comprised of Paycheck Protection Program loans originated in the second quarter.
  • The noncurrent rate (loans 90 days or more past due or in nonaccrual status) remained unchanged at 0.80% from second quarter 2020. That being said, noncurrent balances were up $1.6 billion in total from third quarter 2019. This year-over-year increase was mainly attributable to increases in noncurrent nonfarm nonresidential, C&I, and farm loan balances.
  • Net charge-offs decreased 22.1% year-over-year and currently stand at 0.10%.
  • Total deposit growth since second quarter 2020 was modest at 1.8%. However, total deposits compared to third quarter 2019 were up 16.7%.
  • The number of community banks declined by 34 to 4,590 from second quarter 2020. This change included one new community bank, three banks transitioning from non-community to community banks, eight banks transitioning from community to non-community banks, 29 community bank mergers or consolidations, and one community bank self-liquidation.

Community banks have been resilient and weathered the 2020 storm, as evidenced by an increase in year-over-year net income of 10%. However, tightening NIMs will force community banks to find creative ways to increase their NIM, grow their earning asset base, and identify ways to increase non-interest income to maintain current net income levels. 

Much uncertainty still exists. For instance, although significant charge-offs have not yet materialized, the financial picture for many borrowers remains uncertain, and payment deferrals have made some credit quality indicators, such as past due status, less reliable. The ability of community banks to maintain relationships with their borrowers and remain apprised of the results of their borrowers’ operations has never been more important. 

Despite the turbulence caused by the pandemic, there are many positive takeaways, and community banks have proven their resilience. Previous investments in technology, including customer facing solutions and internal communication tools, have saved time and money. As the pandemic forced many banks to move away from paper-centric processes, the resulting efficiencies of digitizing these processes will last long after the pandemic. 

If you have questions about your specific situation, please don’t hesitate to contact BerryDunn’s Financial Services team. We’re here to help.
 

Article
FDIC issues its third quarter 2020 banking profile

Read this if you are a construction company.

I am pleased to introduce 2020 Tax Planning Opportunities: CARES Act, published in conjunction with CICPAC (Construction Industry CPAs-Consultants Association) by a national group of tax professionals focused on the construction industry. BerryDunn is proud to be one of CICPAC’s 65 member firms across the US, and one of only two in New England.

Within the document you’ll find an abundance of useful insights on the following topics and more related to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (CARES) Act:

  • Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans
  • Net operating losses and excess business loss limitations
  • Qualified Improvement Property (QIP)
  • Payroll cash flow opportunities and employer tax credits

Every business has been impacted by COVID-19 in some form. The CARES Act offers opportunities galore for virtually every business. Now, perhaps more than ever, it’s time to work closely with your BerryDunn tax professional to ensure recovery through this difficult time. 

Read the entire document

Article
2020 tax planning opportunities: CARES Act whitepaper available now

Read this is you are a new renewable energy company looking for accounting solutions.

Setting up a new company in QuickBooks can be challenging enough, but if you are a renewable energy company there are a few additional items to think about. You face unique reporting and tracking requirements for a number of reasons, including tax reporting requirements, potential and existing investors, debt requirements, and grant requirements. Renewable energy companies should take special care in setting up their QuickBooks file. Below is a top 10 list of items to consider when setting up a new company file.

  1. Equity—Have you recorded your initial equity activity?
    Do you have individual capital accounts setup by owner?
    Did some owners contribute items other than cash? Expertise or property? Have you accounted for those properly?
  2. Debt—Do you have all debt financing recorded on the books?
    Debt financing needs to be recorded even if the bank pays some construction vendors directly as part of the agreement.
    Do you have an amortization or payment schedule to assist with recording loan payments properly?
    Does your debt have financial statement reporting requirements or covenant requirements that you must meet annually?
  3. Accounting Basis—Generally Accept Accounting Principles (GAAP) or Tax basis how will you keep your books?
    More and more companies are being required by banks and investors to keep their books on GAAP basis, you should consider future planned investors or financing from the get go as there are some clear distinctions between the two and it may be easier to start with GAAP from the beginning.
    GAAP and tax basis call for some pretty drastic distinctions when it comes to treatment of grant income if they directly relate to a project under development so it’s good to get a handle on this up front.
  4. Construction Costs—Are you capitalizing all construction costs related to your project?
    All costs related to your project must be capitalized on the balance sheet until the project is placed in service at which point you can begin depreciating the value of the project over a period of years.
    Generally, we recommend tracking site work in a separate account as tax and GAAP requirements can call for different treatment of these costs depending on their nature.
    Are you applying for any special grants related to your project? There are a number of federal and state grants available to renewable energy companies which may require breaking your project into cost categories to determine what costs qualify for the grant and what do not? Do you have a mechanism for tracking these costs?
  5. Soft costs―Are you properly capitalizing or expensing soft costs related to your project?  Engineering fees, project management fees and consulting fees if directly related to the project are generally included as part of the capitalized project costs rather than expensed.
    Legal and accounting fees. even if directly related to the project accounting or structuring your project, are generally expensed.
  6. Multiple projects―How are you keeping track of your multiple projects?
    With multiple projects underway at any given time, it is imperative to track these costs by project in QuickBooks and to work with vendors to specify on invoices to what projects costs are related. This is imperative to a lot of grant applications to be able to provide this sort of detail easily and on a consistent basis.
  7. Project details/Contracts details―How are you keeping track of all those details?
    More detail is always good.  In our experience the more detail you have in your files as to cost breakdowns of EPC contracts, etc. the better. Investors and grant evaluators are going to request all this detail and it’s better to have on file than track it down months or even years later.  Vendors are much more cooperative when requesting this documentation up front.
  8. Grant fine print―Have you read the fine print of the grants you’ve received?
    Pay close attention to these green energy grants fine print. Many of the grants have repayment requirements were the project taken out of service within a certain timeframe or have repayment requirements under other circumstances. These are items that may be required to be disclosed in financial statements and are just good business to be aware of.
  9. Organizational costs―Do you know what these are and are you tracking?
    Organization costs are legal, accounting and any other costs related to the actual formation and entity structuring of a company.  In our experience, these costs can be significant with the complex equity structures of many renewable energy companies. Make sure you are tracking these costs as amounts in excess of $5,000 are required to be amortized over 15 years for tax purposes.
  10. Project budgets and overall budgets―Do you have a realistic budget?
    Use QuickBooks budgeting features to track both project budgets as well as your Company’s overall budgets. Projects can go over budget quickly and it’s critical to keep on top of it to ensure the overall mission and sustainability of the company.

Once you have looked at these questions, you will be able to to create an effective budget and financials. If you have questions about your financial operations, QuickBooks, or setting up budgets, please contact the team. We’re here to help. 
 

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Top 10 QuickBooks considerations when setting up a new renewable energy company